Is “Fresh” Fish Really Your Best Option?

By Laura High  @YourCareE
November 07, 2023
Is “Fresh” Fish Really Your Best Option?

You've heard about the benefits of eating more seafood, and “fresh” would seem to be the best choice. Is it? Here's what you should know about your fish options.

For years, we’ve been implored to add more fish to our diet. Fish and shellfish can be a good source of lean protein and contains many of the essential nutrients you need to achieve and maintain good health. Today, you have more options than ever: Fresh, fresh frozen, flash frozen, previously frozen, farmed, and sustainable are all labels you might encounter when making your selection.


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It would be logical to think that “fresh” fish is best. But unless you live on the coast, finding something caught that day, or even yesterday, can be tricky. Fishing boats may stay at sea for several days, so the “fresh catch” may really be a few days old.

If you don’t happen to live on a coast, the farther away you are from where the fish was caught, the less fresh that fish is likely to be. Some companies specialize in flying seafood to land-locked areas within 24 hours of being caught. That may be a better option from a taste and health perspective, but it’s not cheap, particularly if you’re enjoying the “catch of the day” in a restaurant.

What does “fresh” really mean?

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states in its Code of Regulations that the term “fresh” on a label means that the food is in its raw state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form of preservation.

What to look for

Wherever you live, if you’re fortunate enough to have access to fresh fish, the FDA recommends:

  • Buy only fish that is refrigerated or displayed on a thick bed of fresh ice that is not melting (preferably in a case or under some type of cover).
  • Fish should smell fresh and mild, not fishy, sour, or ammonia-like.
  • A fish’s eyes should be clear and bulge a little.
  • Whole fish and fillets should have firm, shiny flesh and bright red gills free from milky slime.
  • The flesh should spring back when pressed.
  • Fish fillets should display no discoloration, darkening, or drying around the edges.
  • Shrimp flesh should be translucent and shiny with little or no odor.
  • Some refrigerated seafood may have time or temperature indicators on their packaging, which show if the product has been stored at the proper temperature. Always check the indicators when they are present, and buy the seafood only if the indicator shows that the product is safe to eat.

If you’re buying live seafood, consider additional safety. You should purchase crabs and lobsters only if they are still moving their legs. Shellfish — mussels, clams, and oysters — should close when you tap them, indicating they are still alive. Avoid cracked or broken shellfish. Don’t eat shellfish that doesn’t open after it’s cooked.

The FDA doesn’t make recommendations for the amount of time from catch to consumption beyond which the seafood is no longer safe to eat. If the seafood meets the criteria listed above, presumably it’s still safe. 


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Consider frozen

If you live in someplace like Colorado, “fresh” fish could be many days old before it arrives at your local supermarket. “Previously frozen” is your best option.

These days, most fishing boats are equipped with blast freezers, so the seafood is “fresh frozen” or “flash frozen” almost immediately after it’s caught and cleaned. That preserves not only the taste and texture but also the nutritional benefits of the seafood.

When you’re ready to prepare frozen seafood, let it thaw overnight in your refrigerator. If you need to thaw it more quickly, submerge it wrapped in plastic in cold water. You can microwave it on defrost until it’s pliable, but still cold. 

Fresh or frozen — keep it safe

Generally, you should cook fish to an internal temperature of 145 degrees or until the flesh becomes opaque (not transparent) and flakes apart easily. Cook scallops, shrimp, and lobster until they are opaque and firm.

When you prepare seafood, make sure you keep it separate from other foods, including using separate cutting boards and utensils. Thoroughly wash your hands and anything else that touches raw seafood. 

What about raw fish?

If you eat raw fish, you are increasing your risk of contracting a foodborne illness. That said, for most healthy people, occasionally eating a reasonable amount of raw or undercooked seafood poses only a small increased risk.

If you choose to consume raw fish or shellfish — such as sushi, sashimi, raw oysters or clams, ceviche, gravlax, and poke — make sure you do so at a reputable establishment that uses high-quality ingredients and proper food safety practices. The FDA recommends that raw seafood should be previously frozen. Freezing kills and eliminates some pathogens.

Additional considerations

Some people should never eat raw or undercooked seafood because of the increased risk (although slight) for exposure to pathogens that can cause serious illness. High-risk individuals include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Young children and infants
  • Older adults
  • People with a compromised immune system

If you are pregnant, nursing your child, or considering becoming pregnant, it’s important to avoid consuming too much mercury, which can damage your child’s developing nervous system. Completely avoid these four types of fish:

  • Shark
  • Swordfish
  • King mackerel
  • Tilefish

You can consume other fish safely in limited amounts and provide nutritional benefits to you and your child. You can safely consume two meals of cooked fish per week (approximately 12 ounces) as long as you are eating a variety that is low in mercury.

A young child should follow that same guideline. He or she should also eat a smaller amount.

Check the Environmental Defense Fund’s EDF Seafood Selector, a database of fish choices “that are good for you and the oceans.” Seafood is rated “best choices,” “OK choices,” and “worst choices.” The ratings include information about the mercury content of most seafood varieties.


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November 07, 2023

Reviewed By:  

Janet O’Dell, RN