HEART CARE

The Four Types of Heart Disease

By Sherry Baker @SherryNewsViews
 | 
February 18, 2020

Four types of heart disease are among the most common cardiac problems in the U.S.: coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, heart failure and heart valve disease.

 

We’ve all heard the alarming statistics. Heart disease is a killer of American adults. In fact, more than 600,000 people die of heart disease in the U.S. every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

But heart disease isn’t one specific condition. It’s a term that covers any disease involving your heart or related vascular system. Cardiovascular disease ― an umbrella designation for coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, high blood pressure, and stroke ― is the main type of heart disease, by far, in the U.S. In fact, about 40 percent of American adults have some form of cardiovascular disease, according to the American Heart Association (AHA).

In addition to CAD and heart failure, arrhythmias (glitches in the heart's electrical system) and heart valve disease are four types of heart disease frequently affecting Americans.

 

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Coronary artery disease and heart attacks

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease, is primarily caused by artery clogging atherosclerosis, which occurs when plaque (comprised of LDL, the “bad” low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other substances) builds up and narrows arteries. Smoking is also linked to atherosclerosis, according to the  American Heart  Association. High blood pressure plays an important role in CAD, too, because it damages arteries over time, causing inflammation and contributing to plaque formation.

Narrowed arteries due to CAD restrict blood flow throughout your body. And, if your heart muscle doesn’t get enough blood, squeezing or pressure type pain in the chest (and sometimes the shoulders, arm, neck, back, or jaw) can result. This can be a warning sign of CAD, or it can indicate a full-blown heart attack is underway. Every year, about 735,000 Americans suffer heart attacks resulting from CAD. This type of heart disease raises the risk for stroke, too.

Arrhythmias: When skipping or fast heartbeats are serious

You probably don’t think about how your heart is beating unless it pounds from a sudden fright or extreme athletic activity. But it can be disconcerting if your heart starts skipping beats or beating unusually fast or irregular, signs of an arrhythmia.

Arrhythmia technically means any change in the normal sequence of electrical impulses that keep your heart beating steadily. Arrhythmias occur when the heart's natural pacemaker develops an abnormality, or the normal pathway in the heart that conducts electrical signals is interrupted.

There are many types of arrhythmias; some are totally benign, and others can be life-threatening. Others are worrisome without causing serious problems. One example is paroxysmal (meaning it starts with no known cause) supraventricular tachycardia (meaning a heart rate over 100 beats per minute that originates in the heart’s upper chambers).  Known as PSVT, for short, the arrhythmia is frequently misdiagnosed as a panic attack because it typically occurs in structurally normal hearts, often in healthy young people. Usually the episodes are short-lived and can be stopped by splashing cold water on the face.

However, other abnormal heart rhythms can be serious when they prevent the heart from pumping blood effectively, causing dizziness, fainting, or even organ damage. The most serious arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation (v-fib), is the cause of most sudden cardiac arrests, The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute notes.

During v-fib, the heart's lower chambers (the ventricles) quiver irregularly and fast instead of beating. The heart is unable to pump blood and, if not treated within a few minutes with an electric shock, the arrhythmia is fatal. CAD, certain inherited disorders, and structural changes in the heart raise the risk for v-fib.

Atrial fibrillation (a-fib) is a common arrhythmia, affecting at least 2.7 million Americans, according to the AHA. In a-fib, the heart’s upper chambers beat irregularly. Sometimes the arrhythmia comes and goes and sometimes it is chronic.

Unlike v-fib, the heart is still able to pump blood throughout the body, so a-fib isn’t life threatening. However, because the irregular heart rhythm can cause blood clots to form and enter the bloodstream, a-fib does raise the risk for stroke. To reduce stroke risk, blood thinners are prescribed for people with this type of heart disease.

Heart failure doesn’t mean your heart stops

When it comes to types of heart disease, heart failure is one of the most serious. However, it doesn’t mean your heart stops if you have the condition. Instead, it means your heart fails to pump enough blood and oxygen to support other organs in your body normally.

About 5.7 million US adults have heart failure the CDC points out. Anything that can damage your heart increases the risk of the condition, including CAD (especially heart attacks), high blood pressure, and diabetes.  Lifestyle is also a factor ― smoking, obesity, an unhealthy diet high in fat and salt, and being sedentary all raise the risk for heart failure.

Symptoms of heart failure include:

  • Shortness of breath, even with simple daily activities
  • Having trouble breathing when lying down
  • Swelling in your feet, legs, ankles, or stomach
  • Generally feeling tired or weak

Early diagnosis, medication, a low-sodium diet, and a daily activity regimen designed for a patient’s specific physical abilities can help improve both quality of life and how long people live with heart failure.

Heart valve disease: Floppy, leaking heart valves

When the heart beats and moves blood through the chambers of your heart to the lungs and the rest of your body, four heart valves open and close. Each valve has a set of flaps (also called leaflets) that normally react to differences in pressure, opening to permit blood to flow in one direction as the heart pumps blood.

Heart valve disease develops when a valve becomes damaged, often from age-related factors, infections (including rheumatic fever and endocarditis), or injuries. The NHLBI points out that certain conditions can stretch and distort heart valves, too, including long-term high blood pressure and heart failure, atherosclerosis in the aorta (the main artery carrying oxygen-rich blood throughout the body), and damage and scar tissue from a heart attack.

The main sign of heart valve disease is an unusual heartbeat sound called a heart murmur. However, it’s important to note many people have heart murmurs without having heart valve disease or any other heart problems. Imaging and other tests are used to actually diagnose heart valve disease.

What’s more, as heart valve disease progresses, symptoms may develop, including chest pain with exercise, an irregular heartbeat and in some valve disease (stenosis, or hardening, of the aortic or mitral valves), dizziness, or fainting. Over time, serious valve problems involving a severely leaking or otherwise abnormal valve can cause heart failure, leading to shortness of breath, fatigue, and other symptoms.

Heart valve disease is believed to affect five to 11 million Americans and is sometimes under diagnosed, resulting in about 25,000 deaths a year, according to the AHA. The good news is that heart valve disease is highly treatable. In fact, many heart valve repairs that are possible with minimally invasive procedures.

 

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Updated:  

February 18, 2020

Reviewed By:  

Janet O’Dell