Magnesium supplements may help relieve depression and anxiety. You can also try eating foods high in magnesium — almonds, bananas, and tofu.
For some people with mild depression, a common safe supplement — magnesium — can make a difference within two weeks, according to a small study. That’s a quick effect. The common medications for depression can take much longer to kick in, or not work for you at all.
In the supplement study, volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate depression, with an average age of 52, took 248 mg of magnesium chloride daily for sex weeks. A comparison group received no treatment. The supplement gave them a significant improvement in measurable depression and anxiety symptoms, beginning at two weeks.
What does magnesium do?
People who had been taking an antidepressant saw a bigger jump, which the researchers argue suggests that the magnesium boosted its effect. If your current antidepressant isn’t working well enough, you might add magnesium instead of increasing the dose or adding a second drug, they suggest.
It’s a small study, with slightly more than a hundred participants, but it is backed up by earlier research. Magnesium levels seem to be low in the cerebral cord and brains of people with treatment-resistant depression. Giving animals magnesium has a strong effect on depression symptoms. A magnesium deficiency in the brain may lower serotonin levels, while antidepressants raise brain magnesium.
Symptoms of magnesium deficiency
Classic symptoms of magnesium deficiency include muscle spasms and cramps, all-over muscle pain, tics, and eye twitches. In the study, volunteers taking magnesium also reported a decline in headaches and muscle aches.
Why might you be short of magnesium? A gastrointestinal problem like irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, or celiac disease, can lower magnesium levels in the body. Diabetes, kidney disease, and stomach viruses that cause vomiting and diarrhea also can have that effect. Do you drink carbonated or caffeinated beverages regularly? Do you drink alcohol often? Those drinks can reduce your magnesium levels, and so can some medications.
But you don’t have to have low magnesium blood levels to be depressed — or, possibly, to benefit from more magnesium. Other research has found that depressed people with higher-than-normal magnesium blood levels had a better response to antidepressants. A blood test may not tell the whole story: You could still lack magnesium in your cells, some argue.
What foods have magnesium?
Foods high in magnesium are foods you’ll see in just about every description of a good diet: dark leafy greens, nuts and seeds, and fish. Whether or not you choose to supplement, why not try eating foods high in magnesium and see if you (or a loved one) improve?
- Whole wheat flour, for example, has a 160 mg of magnesium per cup. Swap out white flour for whole wheat when you bake. A cup of boiled spinach has nearly the same amount of magnesium. Quinoa has around 120 mg per cup; you can substitute it for rice in many recipes, which will increase the protein in your meal as well.
- Many people watching their weight are afraid of the calories in nuts, but they’re actually an ideal snack, and associated with weight loss, not gain. Almonds and cashews are foods high in magnesium.
- Black beans, which are also high in protein and fiber, have 60 mg of magnesium per cup.
- Milk products are high in magnesium, and the calcium will help you absorb it.
If you are restricting foods to avoid kidney stones, you’ll find that don’t-eat items are also foods high in magnesium: spinach, avocado, and dark chocolate. That might be a reason to take a supplement instead, but speak to your doctor.
Should you opt for a supplement, stick to less than 350 mg daily. If you overdo it, the side effects of magnesium include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
September 19, 2017
Christopher Nystuen, MD, MBA