Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

January 16, 2018

Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of a woman’s reproductive tract. It can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. Scar tissue grows between internal organs leading to ongoing pelvic pain. It can also lead to ectopic pregnancy. This is when the fertilized egg grows outside the uterus. If left untreated, PID can lead to chronic infection. Also, you may not be able to get pregnant.

Bacteria cause PID. Often the same type of bacteria that causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PID may also develop if bacteria travel through the vagina and the cervix from the use of an intrauterine device (IUD).

Women of any age can get PID. But, those at greater risk of PID from sexually transmitted bacteria include:

  • Women under 25 who are sexually active
  • Women of childbearing age
  • Women who use intrauterine devices (IUDs)

These are the most common symptoms of PID.

  • Pain and tenderness spread throughout the lower part of the belly
  • Pelvic pain
  • Increased foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Fever and chills
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Pain during urination
  • Belly pain (upper right area)
  • Pain during sex

The symptoms of PID may look like other conditions or health problems. Always talk with your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Your healthcare provider will do a medical history and a physical and pelvic exam. Other tests may include:

  • Exam of vagina and cervix samples under a microscope
  • Blood tests
  • Pap test. For this test, cells are taken from the cervix and checked under a microscope. It's used to find cancer, infection, or inflammation.
  • Ultrasound. This test uses high-frequency sound waves to make an image of the organs.
  • Laparoscopy. This is a minor procedure done using a laparoscope. That is a thin tube with a lens and a light. It is inserted into an incision in the abdominal wall to view the reproductive tract.
  • Culdocentesis. For this test, a needle is inserted into the pelvic cavity through the vaginal wall to get a sample of pus.

Your healthcare provider will discuss the best treatment with you based on:

  • How old you are
  • Your overall health and medical history
  • How sick you are
  • How well you can handle specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • How long the condition is expected to last
  • Your opinion or preference

Antibiotic pills are used to treat PID, especially if it’s due to a STD. For severe infection, you may need to stay in the hospital for intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Sometimes, surgery is needed.

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman’s reproductive tract. It can affect the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or the ovaries.
  • Left untreated, chronic infection and infertility can develop.
  • It is caused by bacteria, often the same type of bacteria that causes STDs.
  • Sexually active women under age 25, and those of childbearing age are at the greatest risk of getting PID from an STD.
  • PID can cause pelvic pain, belly tenderness, vaginal discharge, fever, chills, and pain during urination and sex.
  • Treatment includes antibiotics, especially if you have a STD.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.


January 16, 2018


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Pelvic inflammatory disease: Pathogenesis, microbiology, and risk factors. UpToDate, Pelvic inflammatory disease: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. UpToDate, Pelvic inflammatory disease: Treatment. UpToDate

Reviewed By:  

Burd, Irina, MD, PhD,Freeborn, Donna, PhD, CNM, FNP