The sooner you get your shot, the better protected you’ll be. Flu outbreaks can start as early as October, and it takes two weeks after you’ve been vaccinated for your body to develop antibodies against the virus. Don’t worry about the vaccine wearing off. A study from the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego showed people who got vaccinated “had moderate, sustained protection up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most influenza seasons,” said Jennifer Radin, MPH, an epidemiologist at the center.
“Flu can be serious and it kills tens of thousands of Americans each year,” says Tom Frieden, MD, MPH, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although most people who catch the flu make a full recovery after a week or two, some groups of people – including those with a weakened immune system, young children, and the elderly – are more vulnerable to pneumonia and other flu-related complications. “Vaccination is the single most important step people can take to protect themselves from influenza,” Frieden says.
Flu viruses used in the vaccine are either dead, or weakened to the point where they can’t make you sick. Some people do develop mild, flu-like symptoms like a low-grade fever, muscle aches, or headaches after their shot. These are side effects of the vaccine, and they should go away after a day or two.
A quarter of Americans visit their doctor seeking antibiotics for an upper respiratory infection, even though viruses – not bacteria – cause colds and flu. “Patients often expect their doctors to prescribe an antibiotic every time they get sick,” said Glenn Nemec, MD, a family physician in Monticello, Minn. “This does more harm than good because it leads to antibiotic resistance.” Getting plenty of rest will do your body far more good than an antibiotic.
If you have a cold or the flu, consider yourself contagious. You can even spread your germs before you start to show symptoms, and you’ll continue to be contagious until those symptoms are gone. Be considerate of those around you and stay home until you feel better. If you do have to go out, cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough to contain your germs.
A well-meaning friend or relative might have advised you to skip milk and ice cream when you have a cold because it causes your body to produce more mucus. Yet research doesn’t show that dairy worsens congestion or a runny nose. As long as you’re not lactose intolerant, don’t stop drinking milk simply because of a cold.
A number of over-the-counter cold medicines promise to fix every symptom you have, including cough, congestion, sore throat, aches and pains, and fever. These combo drugs are fine to take, assuming you actually have all these symptoms. But if you just have a sore throat or a stuffed nose, you could end up taking medicines you don’t need. And if you take a multi-symptom cold medicine containing acetaminophen and then pop a couple of Tylenol, you’ll get more than the recommended dose. Instead of choosing a multi-symptom drug, take only medicine that targets the symptoms you have.
You don’t need medicine for the flu, but taking an antiviral drug such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), or peramivir (Rapivab) can make your symptoms milder, help you get over the flu faster, and prevent complications. If you want to try an antiviral drug, get a prescription from your doctor as soon as you start to feel symptoms. These medicines work best when you take them within the first two days of getting sick.
December 14, 2015
Janet O’Dell, RN