Discharge Instructions for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
You have been diagnosed with high blood pressure (also called hypertension). This means the force of blood against your artery walls is too strong. It also means your heart is working hard to move blood. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but over time, it can cause serious health problems. High blood pressure raises your risk for heart attack, stroke, heart failure, kidney disease, and blindness. With help from your doctor, you can manage your blood pressure and protect your health.
Blood pressure measurements are given as 2 numbers. Systolic blood pressure is the upper number. This is the pressure when the heart contracts. Diastolic blood pressure is the lower number. This is the pressure when the heart relaxes between beats.
Blood pressure is categorized as normal, elevated, or stage 1 or stage 2 high blood pressure:
Normal blood pressure is systolic of less than 120 and diastolic of less than 80 (120/80)
Elevated blood pressure is systolic of 120 to 129 and diastolic less than 80
Stage 1 high blood pressure is systolic is 130 to 139 or diastolic between 80 to 89
Stage 2 high blood pressure is when systolic is 140 or higher or the diastolic is 90 or higher
Learn to take your own blood pressure. Keep a record of your results. Ask your doctor which readings mean that you need medical attention.
Take your blood pressure medicine exactly as directed. Don’t skip doses. Missing doses can cause your blood pressure to get out of control.
If you do miss a dose (or doses) check with your healthcare provider about what to do.
Don't take medicines that contain heart stimulants, including over-the-counter medicines. Check for warnings about high blood pressure on the label. Ask the pharmacist before purchasing something you haven't used before
Check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking a decongestant. Some decongestants can worsen high blood pressure.
Maintain a healthy weight. Get help to lose any extra pounds.
Cut back on salt.
Limit canned, dried, packaged, and fast foods.
Don’t add salt to your food at the table.
Season foods with herbs instead of salt when you cook.
Request no added salt when you go to a restaurant.
The American Heart Association (AHA) says the "ideal" amount of sodium is no more than 1,500 mg a day. But because Americans eat so much salt, you can make a positive change by cutting back to even 2,400 mg of sodium a day.
Follow the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) eating plan. This plan recommends vegetables, fruits, whole gains, and other heart healthy foods.
Begin an exercise program. Ask your healthcare provider how to get started. The AHA recommends aerobic exercise 3 to 4 times a week for an average of 40 minutes at a time, with your provider's approval. Simple activities like walking or gardening can help.
Break the smoking habit. Enroll in a stop-smoking program to improve your chances of success. Ask your healthcare provider about programs and medicines to help you stop smoking.
Limit drinks that contain caffeine such as coffee, black or green tea, and cola to 2 per day.
Never take stimulants such as amphetamines or cocaine. These drugs can be deadly for someone with high blood pressure.
Control your stress. Learn ways to manage stress.
Limit alcohol to no more than 1 drink a day for women and 2 drinks a day for men.
Make a follow-up appointment as directed.
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following:
Chest pain or shortness of breath (call 911)
Moderate to severe headache
Weakness in the muscles of your face, arms, or legs
Fainting or dizziness
Pulsating or rushing sound in your ears
Weakness, tingling, or numbness of your face, arms, or legs
Change in vision
Blood pressure measured at home that is greater than 180/110
November 21, 2017
Eckel, RH. Guidelines on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force. Circulation (2013)
Cunningham, Louise, RN,Fraser, Marianne, MSN, RN,Gandelman, Glenn, MD, MPH