CT angiography is a type of medical test that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body. The dye is injected through an intravenous (IV) line started in your arm or hand.
A computerized tomography scan, or CT scan, is a type of X-ray that uses a computer to make cross-sectional images of your body. The dye injected to perform CT angiography is called a contrast material because it "lights up" blood vessels and tissues that are being studied.
You may need this medical test if you have an abnormality that involves the blood vessels of your brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, or other parts of your body. Healthcare providers may use the information from this test to learn more about your condition and to decide the best way to treat you. Some reasons to have a CT angiogram include:
- To find an aneurysm (a blood vessel that has become enlarged and may be in danger of rupturing)
- To find blood vessels that have become narrowed by atherosclerosis (fatty material that forms plaques in the walls of arteries)
- To find abnormal blood vessel formations inside your brain
- To identify blood vessels damaged by injury
- To find blood clots that may have formed in your leg veins and traveled into your lungs.
- To evaluate a tumor that is fed by blood vessels
Information from CT angiography may help prevent a stroke or a heart attack. This type of test may also help your healthcare provider plan cancer treatment or prepare you for a kidney transplant. Your healthcare provider may have other reasons for ordering this test.
There is always a slight risk for cancer from repeated exposure to radiation, but the benefits of getting an accurate diagnosis generally outweigh the risks. The amount of radiation used during CT angiography is considered minimal, so the risk for radiation exposure is low. No radiation remains in your body after a CT scan.
Other risks include:
- Allergic reactions. Always let your radiologist know if you have any history of allergies or an allergy to contrast material. Reactions to contrast are uncommon. If you have any history of allergic reactions, you may be given medicine to lessen the risk for an allergic reaction before the test.
- Tissue damage. If a large amount of contrast material leaks around your IV site, it can irritate your skin or the blood vessels and nerves just under your skin. It is important to tell your radiologist or radiology technician if you have any pain when the contrast material is injected through your IV.
Angiography contrast material can damage your kidneys, so you may not be able to have this test if you have severe kidney disease or diabetes.
If you are breastfeeding, you will need to wait for 24 hours after this test before nursing your baby. If you are pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, you should notify your healthcare provider or radiology technician.
There may be other risks, depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider or radiology technician before the test.
Tell your healthcare provider and your radiology technician about any medicines you take, including herbal supplements and other over-the-counter medicines. Also let them know about any medical conditions you may have, such as heart disease, diabetes, asthma, thyroid, or kidney disease, and any recent illness.
You may be asked to sign an informed consent that describes the risks and benefits of this test. You should discuss the risks and benefits with the healthcare provider or the radiology technician. Other preparations include:
- You may be asked to stop eating and drinking for several hours before the test.
- Leave at home all metal objects, such as jewelry or hairpins, because metal can affect CT imaging. You may be asked to remove your eyeglasses, dentures, or hearing aids.
- Wear loose, comfortable clothing.
Based on your medical condition, your healthcare provider may request other specific preparation.
You may have this test done at the hospital or at another outpatient facility. The CT scanner is a large machine with a tunnel that the examining table passes in and out of. Tests may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare provider's practices.
Here is what may happen during the test:
- You will be placed on the exam table and positioned by a radiology technician.
- An IV line will be placed in your hand or arm.
- You may feel a warm sensation when the contrast material is injected, and you may notice a metallic taste for a brief period.
- The radiology technician will leave the room just before the exam table moves through the scanner. The technician will be able to observe you through a window from an adjacent room and talk with you though an intercom.
- Scanning is painless. You may hear clicking, whirring, and buzzing sounds as the scanner rotates around you.
- You may be asked to hold your breath during the scan.
- Depending on what body area is being scanned, the test may last for about 20 minutes up to an hour or so. You may have to wait a little longer until the technician doing the scan checks the images to make sure they are acceptable.
After the test is completed, you will have your IV removed. In most cases, you can return to all your normal activities at home. You may be given some additional instructions after the test, depending on your particular situation.Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know:
- The name of the test or procedure
- The reason you are having the test or procedure
- What results to expect and what they mean
- The risks and benefits of the test or procedure
- What the possible side effects or complications are
- When and where you are to have the test or procedure
- Who will do the test or procedure and what that person’s qualifications are
- What would happen if you did not have the test or procedure
- Any alternative tests or procedures to think about
- When and how will you get the results
- Who to call after the test or procedure if you have questions or problems
- How much will you have to pay for the test or procedure
January 16, 2018
Grossman, Neil, MD,Bass, Pat F. III, MD, MPH