Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Surgery for Incontinence
The pelvic organs include the organs of your reproductive system and your urinary tract. The pelvic organs are supported by pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor muscles can weaken. This may cause one or more pelvic organs to fall out of place (prolapse). Pelvic organ prolapse can contribute to stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This is trouble controlling the flow of urine out of the body. You may have surgery to treat SUI. During this surgery, a prolapse can be fixed. One or more extra incisions may be needed to do this. Your surgeon can discuss the details with you.
Pelvic organ prolapse: common types
Cystocele.This is when the bladder sags into the vagina. To fix this, the bladder is moved back into its normal position. It is then sewn into place. The tissue between the vagina and bladder may be strengthened for better support to keep the bladder from sagging.
Uterine prolapse.This is when the uterus sags into the vagina. The uterus may fall as far as the opening of the vagina. To fix this, the uterus is often removed (hysterectomy). Or, the uterus may be sewn back into place.
Rectocele. This is when the rectum bulges into the vagina. An enterocele (much less common) is when the small intestine bulges into the vagina. During SUI surgery, the bulge in the rectum or small intestine can be fixed.
Vaginal vault prolapse. This is when the walls of the vagina fall in on themselves. It can happen if the uterus has been removed. Surgery can be done to lift the vagina and hold it in place.
Risks and possible complications of this surgery
Risks of anesthesia
Damage to nerves, muscles, or nearby pelvic structures
Prolapse of the pelvic organ or organs happening again
April 19, 2018
An Overview of the Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Clinical Manifestations, and Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women. UpToDate, Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women: Combined Surgical Treatment. UpToDate, Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Choosing a primary surgical procedure. UpToDate, Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women: Surgical Repair of Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse. UpToDate, Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of apical prolapse (uterine or vaginal vault prolapse). UpToDate
Freeborn, Donna, PhD, CNM, FNP,Sacks, Daniel, MD, FACOG