Marine Bites and Stings
In North America, most marine animal bites and stings aren’t deadly. But some may cause a deep wound or severe allergic reaction. You’re most likely to come in contact with biting or stinging marine life—including jellyfish, sculpins, and stingrays—when you’re swimming or wading. These animals don’t attack you, but may sting if they’re stepped on or touched. Even dead jellyfish can sometimes release venom (poison) when handled.
When to go to the emergency room (ER)
Not all marine animal stings need urgent care. But you should seek emergency treatment if any of the following is true:
You don’t know what type of sting you have.
You have a history of allergic reactions.
You are stung on the face or neck.
You have trouble breathing.
You have severe pain with or without significant swelling of the area.
What to expect in the emergency room
Your injury will be cleaned and examined.
A jellyfish sting may be rinsed with saline (salt) solution or vinegar. This prevents more toxins from being released. Any tentacles left in your skin will be removed.
If your reaction is severe, you may be given a steroid medicine to help control it.
If you are in pain, medicine may be prescribed to make you more comfortable.
See your healthcare provider if:
The wound isn’t healing
You have signs of infection. These include redness, pain, discharge, or fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, or as directed by your healthcare provider.
Seek emergency care if you have signs of an allergic reaction. These can occur up to a month after a jellyfish sting.
Swelling of the affected body part, hands, head, face, or tongue
After a bite or sting
Get out of the water safely.
Don't use your bare hands to remove a stinger. Remove any stingers you see by wiping with a towel.
Wash the area with saltwater. Vinegar may help relieve the pain of jellyfish stings.
Don't raise the stung body part above the level of your heart.
Don't take any medicine unless told to by a healthcare provider.
December 15, 2017
Cegolon, Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review, Mar Drugs (2013); 11(2); 523-550, Markenson, D. Part 17: First Aid: 2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines for First Aid. Circulation 92010); 122(18); pp. s934-s946
Moloney, Amanda Jane (Johns), PA-C, MPAS, BBA,Perez, Eric, MD