A black eye is really a bruise around your eye. It is often caused by an injury to your face or head. It is not usually due to an injury to the eye itself. The swelling and black-and-blue color happen because of blood and fluids collecting in the skin around your eye. A black eye should return to normal in 1 or 2 weeks.
When to go to the emergency room (ER)
In many cases, a black eye is a minor injury. It can be treated at home with cold packs and pain medicine. But seek medical care right away if you have any of these symptoms:
A change or loss of vision
Trouble moving your eye up and down or side to side
Blood inside your eye, or bleeding from your nose or ears
Fluid leaking from your eye
What to expect in the ER
While in the ER, you may expect the following:
Your injury will be examined.
Your vision, the way your eye moves, and the bones around your eye will be checked.
You may have a fluorescein stain test. This uses dye and a special light to check for damage to the surface of your eye.
An X-ray or other tests may be done.
Depending on the results of your exam and tests, you may be referred to an eye specialist (ophthalmologist).
While your eye is healing, call your healthcare provider if you notice any of these symptoms:
Swelling that doesn't improve after a few days
Increased or severe pain
Changes in your vision
Warmth, redness, or pus near the bruise
To reduce pain and swelling from a black eye
Apply ice packs every 20 minutes while you're awake for the first 24 hours.
Use warm compresses every 20 minutes while you're awake for the next 24 hours.
December 09, 2017
Overview of eye injuries in the emergency department. UpToDate
Fraser, Marianne, MSN, RN,Haupert, Christopher L., MD