Preventing a Second Heart Attack
Most Americans survive a first heart attack, but are at increased risk for another one. By taking action you can significantly reduce your chance for a second heart attack.
These factors increase your risk for another heart attack, according to experts:
Being overweight or obese
High blood sugar, if you have diabetes
High blood pressure
What you should do
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends the following actions to reduce your risk for a second heart attack:
Quit smoking. You can cut your risk for another heart attack in half by not smoking. Talk to your healthcare provider about a smoking cessation program or nicotine replacement products. This is the biggest preventable risk factor for heart disease.
Eat a heart-healthy diet. By cutting back on saturated fat and trans fat, you can lower your LDL ("bad") cholesterol. This is one of the primary substances that causes heart attacks. Manufacturers are reducing or eliminating trans fats from their products. You can avoid most trans fatty acids, however, by eating less margarine and fewer cookies, crackers, fries, doughnuts, and other snack foods that contain partially hydrogenated oils. It's important to continue this eating pattern even when you eat out.
Control your cholesterol. Besides eating a heart-healthy diet, such as the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, you can help keep your cholesterol under control by exercising regularly. Your healthcare provider may also prescribe a cholesterol-lowering medicine, such as a statin. It's important to take this medicine as prescribed. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have any concerns.
Exercise regularly. Exercise is important because it strengthens your heart muscle. It also boosts your energy level and helps with weight management, cholesterol, and blood pressure. The AHA recommends a minimum of 30 to 60 minutes of walking or other moderately vigorous exercise at least 3 to 5 times each week. If you've had a heart attack, you must get your healthcare provider's OK before starting an exercise program. If you have any of these symptoms during exercise, call your healthcare provider immediately:
Shortness of breath that lasts for more than 10 minutes
Chest pain or pain in your arms, neck, jaw, or stomach
Pale or splotchy skin
Very fast heartbeat or irregular heartbeat
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness, swelling, or pain in your legs
Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight greatly increases your risk for a second heart attack. If you need to lose weight, ask your healthcare provider for help. Your BMI (body mass index) should be between 18.5 and 24.9. This is the healthiest range.
Control high blood pressure. Follow your healthcare provider's suggestions.
Assess your mental health. Depression, stress, anxiety, and anger can damage your heart and overall health. Talk with your healthcare provider about seeing a therapist if you need help with your emotions.
Take your medicines as directed. Your heart, cholesterol, and blood pressure medicines are an important part of your heart health. If you have any questions about them, talk with your healthcare provider or your pharmacist.
October 15, 2017
Fetterman, Anne, RN, BSN,Gandelman, Glenn, MD, MPH