Lifestyle Changes to Control Cholesterol
You can control your cholesterol through diet, exercise, weight management, quitting smoking, stress management, and taking your medicines right. These things can also lower your risk for cardiovascular disease.
Your healthcare provider will give you information on diet changes you may need to make. Your provider may recommend that you see a registered dietitian for help with diet changes. Changes may include:
Cutting back on the amount of fat and cholesterol in your meals
Eating less salt (sodium). This is especially important if you have high blood pressure.
Eating more fresh vegetables and fruits
Eating lean proteins such as fish, poultry, beans, and peas
Eating less red meat and processed meats
Using low-fat dairy products
Using vegetable and nut oils in limited amounts
Limiting how many sweets and processed foods like chips, cookies, and baked goods that you eat
Limiting how many sugar-sweetened beverages you drink
Limiting how often you eat out
Regular exercise is a good way to help your body control cholesterol. Regular exercise can help in many ways. It can:
Raise your good cholesterol
Help lower your bad cholesterol
Let blood flow better through your body
Give more oxygen to your muscles and tissues
Help you manage your weight
Help your heart pump better
Lower your blood pressure
Your healthcare provider may recommend that you get more physical activity if you haven't been active. Your provider may recommend that you get moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 40 minutes each day. You should do this for at least 3 to 4 days each week. A few examples of moderate to vigorous activity are:
Walking at a brisk pace. This is about 3 to 4 miles per hour.
Jogging or running
Swimming or water aerobics
Riding a bicycle or stationary bike
Managing your weight
If you are overweight or obese, your healthcare provider will work with you to help you lose weight and lower your BMI (body mass index). Making diet changes and getting more physical activity can help. Changing your diet will help you lose weight more easily than adding exercise.
Smoking and other tobacco use can raise cholesterol and make it harder to control. Quitting is tough. But millions of people have given up tobacco for good. You can quit, too! Think about some of the reasons below to quit smoking. Do any of them make you think twice about your smoking habit?
Stop smoking because it:
Keeps your cholesterol high, even if you make all the other changes you’re supposed to
Damages your body. It especially harms your heart, lungs, skin, and blood vessels.
Makes you more likely to have a heart attack (acute myocardial infarction), stroke, or cancer
Stains your teeth
Makes your skin, clothes, and breath smell bad
Costs a lot of money
Learn ways to control stress. This will help you deal with stress in your home and work life. Controlling stress can greatly lower your risk of getting cardiovascular disease.
Making the most of medicines
Healthy eating and exercise are a good start to keeping your cholesterol down. But you may need some extra help from medicine. If your doctor prescribes medicine, be sure to take it exactly as directed. Remember:
Tell your healthcare provider about all other medicines you take. This includes vitamins and herbs.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effects after starting to take a medicine. Examples of side effects to watch for include muscle aches, weakness, blurred vision, rust-colored urine, yellowing of eyes or skin (jaundice), and headache.
Don’t skip a dose or stop taking your medicine because you feel better or because your cholesterol numbers go down. Never stop taking your medicine unless your healthcare provider has told you it’s OK.
Ask your healthcare provider if you have any questions about your medicines.
High risk groups
Some people may need to take medicines called statins to control their cholesterol. This is in addition to eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise.
Statins can help you stay healthy. They can also help prevent a heart attack or stroke. You may need to take a statin if you are in one of these groups:
Adults who have had a heart attack or stroke. Or adults who have had peripheral vascular disease, a ministroke (transient ischemic attack), or stable or unstable angina. This group also includes people who have had a procedure to restore blood flow through a blocked artery. These procedures include percutaneous coronary intervention, angioplasty, stent, and open-heart bypass surgery.
Adults who have diabetes. Or adults who are at higher risk of having a heart attack or stroke and have an LDL cholesterol level of 70 to 189 mg/dL
Adults who are 21 years old or older and have an LDL cholesterol level of 190 mg/dL or higher.
If you are in a high-risk group, talk with your healthcare provider about your treatment goals. Make sure you understand why these goals are important, based on your own health history and your family history of heart disease or high cholesterol.
Make a plan to have regular cholesterol checks. You may need to fast before getting this test. Also ask your provider about any side effects your medicines may cause. Let your provider know about any side effects you have. You may need to take more than one medicine to reach the cholesterol goals that you and your provider decide on.
March 20, 2017
2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Eckel, R. Circulation. 2013.
Gandelman, Glenn, MD, MPH,Snyder, Mandy, APRN