What You Need to Know About Vomiting
Although nausea and vomiting can make you feel miserable, it's important to remember that these are not diseases, but rather symptoms of many illnesses.
Nausea is a feeling of uneasiness in the stomach often tied to an urge to vomit. Nausea doesn't always lead to vomiting, however. Vomiting is the emptying of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.
These are some of the more common causes of nausea and vomiting:
Gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the digestive tract most often caused by a viral or bacterial infection
Medicines or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy
Hormonal changes, such as those that lead to morning sickness during pregnancy
Food poisoning or food intolerance
Poisons, toxins, or chemicals in the blood, such as alcohol
Stress and excitement in children ages 2 to 6
These are less common causes. Some examples are:
Blockage of the bowel
Pancreatitis, or other inflammation in the abdomen such as diverticulitis and appendicitis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Delayed stomach emptying
What to do for nausea
Here are ideas on how to ease nausea:
Drink clear or ice cold beverages.
Sip beverages slowly.
Eat saltine crackers, plain bread, and other bland foods.
Avoid foods that are fried or sweet.
Eat smaller meals.
Wait a while after eating before exercising or doing other vigorous activity.
Don't brush your teeth immediately after a meal.
If these suggestions don't ease your nausea, talk with your healthcare provider.
What to do for vomiting
Children become dehydrated more quickly than adults do. If your child is vomiting, ask your healthcare provider how to help your child feel better.
If you are vomiting, try these tips:
Take a break from solid food, even if you feel like eating.
Stay hydrated by sucking on ice chips or frozen fruit pops, and drinking sips of water, weak tea, clear soft drinks without carbonation, noncaffeinated sports drinks, or broth. Sugary drinks may calm the stomach better than other liquids.
Temporarily stop taking oral medicines because these can make vomiting worse.
Slowly add bland foods. If you've been able to drink some fluids and haven't thrown up for 6 to 8 hours, try eating small amounts of foods such as bananas, rice, applesauce, unbuttered toast, dry crackers, or dry cereal.
Once you're back on solid food, eat small meals every few hours. This helps your stomach digest food slowly.
Avoid strong odors, such as tobacco smoke, perfumes, or cooking smells.
Avoid dairy products, tobacco, and alcohol. They may irritate your stomach.
Get plenty of rest.
Vomiting that is caused by drug therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy may be treated by taking a different medicine. Medicines are also available to treat vomiting in pregnancy and other conditions. Talk with your healthcare provider about what’s best for you.
When to seek medical care
See your healthcare provider if your vomiting doesn't ease with self-care within 24 hours, or if you become dehydrated. Symptoms of dehydration include extreme thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, and dizziness, or lightheadedness.
See your healthcare provider right away if any of the following signs or symptoms occur:
Blood in the vomit
Severe headache or stiff neck
Confusion or decreased alertness
Severe abdominal pain
Vomiting with fever above 101°F (38°C)
Vomiting and diarrhea are both present
Rapid breathing or pulse
Take your child to the healthcare provider right away if any of the following signs or symptoms occur:
Child younger than age 6
Vomiting lasts more than a few hours
Diarrhea also occurs
Your child becomes dehydrated
Your child has a fever above 100°F (37.8°C)
Your child hasn't urinated or wet a diaper in 4 to 6 hours
Child age 6 and older
Vomiting lasts more than one day
Diarrhea and vomiting last more than 24 hours
Your child becomes dehydrated
Your child has a fever above 101°F (38°C)
Your child hasn’t urinated in 6 hours
March 21, 2017
Patient information: Nausea and vomiting in infants and children (Beyond the Basics). UpToDate.
Kolbus, Karin, RN, DNP, COHN-S,Lehrer, Jenifer, MD