Babies Need "Tummy Time"
Nearly 15 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) first recommended that parents put their babies to sleep on their back. That simple piece of advice cut the death rate from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) by more than half. An unexpected result has happened, however: flattened heads.
The flattening—a result of babies' spending so much time on their back—most often happens on the back of the infant's head and is usually more noticeable on one side. This flattening may broaden the head and face. In severe cases, the flattening may push forward one side of the face. This creates an uneven appearance.
No one's sure how common flat heads are. But around half of infants have some amount of flattening of the head by 2 months of age. Only about 1 in 5 of those have severe changes, according to a 2013 article in the journal Pediatrics.
To avoid a flat head—medically known as deformational plagiocephaly or positional plagiocephaly—try these tips:
Parents should still place babies on their back for sleep.
When babies are awake and under supervision, put them on their tummy for a while. This eases pressure on the back of the head and helps babies build shoulder and neck strength. Interact with your baby during "tummy time" and provide objects for your baby to see and touch.
Alternate which direction you place your child in the crib each night. Your child will then alternate which direction he or she looks out of the crib.
Don't hang objects above your child's head. Put them on both sides of the crib so he or she will turn his or her head to look at them.
Dress your child in clothes that allow for freedom of movement.
Alternate sides if you bottle-feed your child. Don't let your baby fall asleep while bottle-feeding. Milk or formula pooled in your baby's mouth can cause tooth decay.
Reduce the use of car seats when not traveling in the car, as well as other types of seats like bouncers in which babies are positioned on their backs.
Pick up your child often. The more time your child is held in your arms, the less time he or she is lying down with pressure to the head.
If your child develops a flat spot on his or her head, see your healthcare provider.
March 21, 2017
Effects of Access to a Stimulating Object on Infant Behavior During Tummy Time. Kadey H. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2012;45:395-99., Prevention and Management of Positional Skull Deformities in Infants. Laughlin J. Pediatrics. 2011;128(6):1236-41., Prevention of deformational plagiocephaly in neonates. Cavalier A. Early Human Development. 2011;87(8):537-43., SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Pediatrics. 2016;138(5):1-12., The Incidence of Positional Plagiocephaly: A Cohort Study. Mawji A. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2):298-304.