Tylophora (Tylophora indica)
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Anta-mul (Hindi), Indian ipecac, Indian ipecacuahna, Jangli-pikavan, Tylophora asthmatica, Tylophora pubescens, Tylophora vomitoria, Voight, wall.
Tylophora is a climbing perennial plant that grows in India. The leaves of tylophora have been traditionally used for treating asthma, earning the name of Tylophora asthmatica. In folk medicine, it has been used for other respiratory problems such as allergies, bronchitis and the common cold. It is also believed by some to have laxative and other purgative properties. Additionally, it has been employed to treat dysentery and joint pain.
The only available clinical trials done on tylophora test its effectiveness in bronchial asthma. To date, there are no trials available examining its effectiveness in treating other conditions.
The occurrence of adverse events that occur when the leaf of tylophora is taken orally seems to be reduced when the leaves are taken in capsule form instead of chewing.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Available studies of tylophora for asthma show conflicting results and therefore efficacy remains unproven.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Adrenal support, allergies, antispasmodic, bronchitis, colds, dermatitis, diaphoretic, dysentery, expectorant, inflammation, joint pain, laxative, rheumatism.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (over 18 years old)
There is no proven effective dose for tylophora. Traditionally, doses of 250 milligrams 1-3 times daily, standardized to 0.1% of tylophorine per dose, and doses of 30-60 milligrams twice daily standardized to 0.15% of tylophorine have been used. One clinical trial reports using 350 milligrams of tylophora leaf placed in a capsule and given once daily for seven days. Some experts have used tylophora leaf taken in the amount of 200-400 milligrams dried herb daily. A clinical trial reports the use of one tylophora leaf taken orally daily in the morning for six days. One clinical trial reports the use of 40mg of alcoholic extract of Tylophora indica daily for six days.
There are reports using 400-500 milligrams of alkaloid tylophora in powder form given once daily to asthmatic patients for six days. Another trial used one leaf of tylophora daily for up to 12 days in asthmatic patients.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven effective dose for tylophora in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to tylophora.
Side Effects and Warnings
Tylophora has been reported to cause infrequent nausea, vomiting, change in taste perception and mouth soreness. Rare instances of drowsiness and respiratory distress have also been reported.
Use cautiously in patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, hypertension and edema.
Avoid in patients with serious infections, organ transplantation, major systemic disease or major recent surgery.
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Tylophora is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. Tylophora asthmatica has been reported to have abortion-inducing properties. Many tinctures contain high levels of alcohol, and should be avoided during pregnancy.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Tylophora was found to have central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in high doses. Caution is advised when taking tylophora with antidepressants or other CNS stimulants.
Tylophora may increase bronchodilation, and caution is advised when taking with bronchodilators.
Although not well studied in humans, tylophora may antagonize dextmethasone/hypophysectomy-induced suppression of the pituitary. Caution is advised when taking tylorphora with corticosteroids (steroids).
Tylophora leaf extract of Tylophora conspicua may exhibit dose-dependent inhibition of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, possibly through gastric acid inhibition. Use caution when taking with indomethacin or other antacids.
Many tinctures contain high levels of alcohol, and may cause nausea or vomiting when taken with metronidazole (Flagyl®) or disulfiram (Antabuse®).
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Tylophora leaf extract of Tylophora conspicua exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, possibly through gastric acid inhibition. Use caution when taking with other antacids.
Tylophora was found to have central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in high doses. Caution is advised when taking tylophora with herbs or supplements with antidepressant or CNS stimulant effects.
Although not well studied in humans, tylophora may antagonize dextmethasone/hypophysectomy-induced suppression of the pituitary. Caution is advised when taking tylorphora with herbs or supplements with corticosteroid-like effects.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Dikshith TS, Raizada RB, Mulchandani NB. Toxicity of pure alkaloid of Tylophora asthamatica in male rat. Indian J Exp Biol 1990;28(3):208-212. View Abstract
Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS, Cordell GA, et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975;64(4):535-598. View Abstract
Gopalakrishnan C, Shankaranarayanan D, Nazimudeen SK, et al. Effect of tylophorine, a major alkaloid of Tylophora indica, on immunopathological and inflammatory reactions. Indian J Med Res 1980;71:940-948. View Abstract
Gupta S, George P, Gupta V, et al. Tylophora indica in bronchial asthma--a double blind study. Indian J Med Res 1979;69:981-989. View Abstract
Mathew KK, Shivpuri DN. Treatment of asthma with alkaloids of Tylophora indica - a double blind study. Aspects of Allergy Appl Immunol 1974;7:166-179.
Raji Y, Hammed AI, Adesanwo JK, et al. Antiulcerogenic effects of Tylophora conspicua in male rats. Phytother Res 2000;14(5):378-380. View Abstract
Shivpuri DN, Menon MP, Prakash D. A crossover double-blind study on Tylophora indica in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Allergy 1969;43(3):145-150. View Abstract
Shivpuri DN, Menon MP, Parkash D. Preliminary studies in Tylophora indica in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Assoc Physicians India 1968;16(1):9-15. View Abstract
Shivpuri DN, Singhal SC, Parkash D. Treatment of asthma with an alcoholic extract of tylophora indica: a cross-over, double-blind study. Ann Allergy 1972;30(7):407-412. View Abstract
Thiruvengadam KV, Haranath K, Sudarsan S, et al. Tylophora indica in bronchial asthma (a controlled comparison with a standard anti-asthmatic drug). J Indian Med Assoc 10-1-1978;71(7):172-176. View Abstract
Udupa AL, Udupa SL, Guruswamy MN. The possible site of anti-asthmatic action of Tylophora asthmatica on pituitary-adrenal axis in albino rats. Planta Med 1991;57(5):409-413. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017