Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
2-Deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA), 2-hydroxy-4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 2-hydroxy-5-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, (2S)-4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol, (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol, (2S)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-2-yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 3,4-dimethoxyphenylpropanoids, 4-[(3S)-3-hydroxybutyl]phenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 4-[4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl]-2-butanone, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one, 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-but-3-ene-2-one, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butan-2-one, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butanone-2, 4-hydroxybenzalacetone, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, 4-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone, 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone, acetone, Actinidia arguta, carbinols, cetona de frambuesa (Spanish), cétone de framboise (French), Corps 112, Corps N-112, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester, frambinone, kiwi fruit, oxanone, oxyphenylone, phenylbutanone raspberry ketone, p-hydroxybenzylacetone, p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butanone, p-hydroxyphenylpropanoids, rasketone, raspberry ketone formate, raspberry ketones, raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase-1 (RZS1), rastone, red raspberry fruit, red raspberry ketone, rheosmin, RK, RKF, Rubus idaeus, Rubus idaeus ketone.
Raspberry ketone is a compound that is found in red raspberry fruits. It is responsible for the fruity aroma of raspberries, and it is often used as a fragrance and flavoring agent for cosmetics, perfumes, foods, and beverages. Although it is mostly found in raspberries, raspberry ketone has also been found in kiwifruit.
Natural raspberry ketone is one of the most expensive yet popular flavoring agents in the food industry. However, because finding raspberry ketone in its natural form may be difficult, its synthetic preparation has been explored.
There is some scientific evidence that suggests that raspberry ketone may improve the skin, promote hair growth and weight loss, and treat obesity. However, more research is needed to confirm the effects of raspberry ketone for any health-related purposes.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Early research suggests that raspberry ketone may promote hair growth in people who have hair loss. However, there is not enough available evidence, and more studies are needed in this area.
Early research has shown that raspberry ketone increases cheek skin elasticity. Although the results are promising, further research is needed before firm conclusions may be made.
Early research suggests that raspberry ketone may promote weight loss and treat obesity. However, high-quality studies are needed before any conclusions may be made.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Aromatic, anti-androgen, anti-inflammatory, breast cancer, cosmetic, flavoring, fatty liver, fragrance, high cholesterol, hormone related problems, liver conditions, prostate cancer, sexual disorders.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
To promote weight loss and treat obesity, a single dose of 100 milligrams of raspberry ketone has been taken by mouth 30 minutes before a high fat meal.
To treat hair loss, a solution of 0.01% raspberry ketone has been applied to the skin once daily for five months.
To improve the appearance of skin, a solution of 0.01% raspberry ketone has been applied to the face once daily for 14 days.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for raspberry ketone in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to raspberry ketone.
Side Effects and Warnings
There is currently not enough reliable safety information on the use of raspberry ketone in humans.
Raspberry ketone may cause side effects such as changes in body fat and weight, changes in inflammation, heart palpitations, and shakiness.
Raspberry ketone may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in people with diabetes or low blood sugar and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
Raspberry ketone may decrease the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding, such as warfarin. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Use cautiously in people who have cancer and are receiving androgen deprivation therapy or hormone therapy or are taking antiandrogens as treatment.
Use cautiously in people who have abnormal or irregular heartbeat or in those taking agents that may treat abnormal heart rhythm.
Use cautiously in people who are taking anti-inflammatory agents, stimulants, or weight loss agents.
Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to raspberry ketone.
Avoid using in children and in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, due to a lack of safety information.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
There is currently a lack of scientific evidence on the use of raspberry ketone during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Raspberry ketone may decrease the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding, such as warfarin.
Raspberry ketone may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. People taking insulin or drugs for diabetes by mouth should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Raspberry ketone may also interact with agents that may block androgen receptor activity, agents that may regulate heart rate, agents that may treat liver disorders, agents that may treat skin disorders, anticancer agents, anti-inflammatory agents, cholesterol-lowering agents, hormonal agents, stimulants, and weight loss agents.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Raspberry ketone may decrease the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding.
Raspberry ketone may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Raspberry ketone may also interact with anticancer herbs and supplements, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antioxidants, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that may block androgen receptor activity, herbs and supplements that may treat abnormal heartbeat, herbs and supplements that may treat liver disorders, herbs and supplements that may treat skin disorders, hormonal herbs and supplements, stimulants, and weight loss herbs and supplements.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Beekwilder, J, van der Meer, IM, Sibbesen, O, et al. Microbial production of natural raspberry ketone. Biotechnol.J 2007;2(10):1270-1279. View Abstract
Feron, G, Mauvais, G, Martin, F, et al. Microbial production of 4-hydroxybenzylidene acetone, the direct precursor of raspberry ketone. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2007;45(1):29-35. View Abstract
Harada, N, Okajima, K, Narimatsu, N, et al. Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans. Growth Horm.IGF.Res 2008;18(4):335-344. View Abstract
Jang, EB, Casana-Giner, V, and Oliver, JE. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate. J Econ.Entomol. 2007;100(4):1124-1128. View Abstract
Keng-Hong, T and Nishida, R. Synomone or kairomone?--Bulbophyllum apertum flower releases raspberry ketone to attract Bactrocera fruit flies. J Chem.Ecol. 2005;31(3):497-507. View Abstract
Koeduka, T, Watanabe, B, Suzuki, S, et al. Characterization of raspberry ketone/zingerone synthase, catalyzing the alpha, beta-hydrogenation of phenylbutenones in raspberry fruits. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-19-2011;412(1):104-108. View Abstract
Lin, CH, Ding, HY, Kuo, SY, et al. Evaluation of in Vitro and in Vivo Depigmenting Activity of Raspberry Ketone from Rheum officinale. Int.J Mol.Sci. 2011;12(8):4819-4835. View Abstract
Morimoto, C, Satoh, Y, Hara, M, et al. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci. 5-27-2005;77(2):194-204. View Abstract
Ogawa, Y, Akamatsu, M, Hotta, Y, et al. Effect of essential oils, such as raspberry ketone and its derivatives, on antiandrogenic activity based on in vitro reporter gene assay. Bioorg.Med Chem.Lett. 4-1-2010;20(7):2111-2114. View Abstract
Park, KS. Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Planta Med 2010;76(15):1654-1658. View Abstract
Pedapudi, S, Chin, CK, and Pedersen, H. Production and elicitation of benzalacetone and the raspberry ketone in cell suspension cultures of Rubus idaeus. Biotechnol.Prog. 2000;16(3):346-349. View Abstract
Shimoda, K, Harada, T, Hamada, H, et al. Biotransformation of raspberry ketone and zingerone by cultured cells of Phytolacca americana. Phytochemistry 2007;68(4):487-492. View Abstract
Ushiki, M, Ikemoto, T, and Sato, Y. Anti-obese activities of raspberry ketone. Aroma Research 2002;3(4):361.
Wang, L, Meng, X, and Zhang, F. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. J Med Food 2012;15(5):495-503. View Abstract
Zorn, H, Fischer-Zorn, M, and Berger, RG. A labeling study to elucidate the biosynthesis of 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butan-2-one (raspberry ketone) by Nidula niveo-tomentosa. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2003;69(1):367-372. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017