Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Adenosine, alkaloids, alpha-copaene, alpha-cyperone, alpha-rotunol, ammiol, aristolone, benzo-alpha-pyrone (coumarin), beta-cyperone, beta-pinene, beta-rotunol, beta-selinene, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside, boeai, caffeic acid, calcium, camphene, caryophyllene alpha-oxide, chaguan humatag, chlorogenic acid, chrysoeriol, cineole, clovane-2,9-diol, cocograss, copaene, cypera-2,4(15)-diene, Cyperaceae (family), cyperadione, cyperene, cyperenone, cyperine, cyperol, cyperolone, cyperorotundene, cyperotundone d-copadiene, Cyperus rhizome, Cyperus rotundus, d-epoxyguaiene, d-fructose, d-glucose, ellagic acid, epiorientin, essential oil, ethyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, (E)-caffeoylmalic acid, flavonoids, gamma-cymene, gondla, gondla jadi, hama-suge, isocurcumenol, isocyperol, isolongifolen-5-one, isorhamnetin, isokobusone, isotorundene, kaempferol, kangen-karyu (KGK), khellin, khellol glucoside, kili'o'opu, kobusone, limonene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, luteolin, magnesium, manganese, methanol (MeOH), muskezamin, musta, mustakone, mutha, myricetin, myristic acid, nagar motha (Hindi), n-butyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside, nootkatone, norcyperone, norrotundene, nutsedge, nutgrass, oleanolic acid, oleanolic acid 3-o-neohesperidoside, oleic acid, orientin, pakopako, patchoulenone, p-coumaric acid, p-cymol, pectin, peroxycalamenene, polyphenols, protocatechuic acid, purple nut, quercetin, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, red nut, roekoet teki, rosenonolactone, rotundene, rotundine A, rotundine B, rotundine C, salicylic acid, se'd (Arabic), sedge, selinatriene, sesquiterpene alkaloids, sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, so ken chiu, so ts'ao, souchet, stearic acid, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, sugeonol, sugetriol triacetate, tage-tage, tagernut, teki, tetralone, tiririca, topalak, tricin, tryptophan, uridine, visnagin, vitexin woeta, xiang fu (Mandarin Chinese).
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) is a species of sedge (Cyperaceae family) native to Africa, southern and central Europe, and southern Asia. Sedges are a family of grass-like flowering plants. Purple nutsedge is considered an invasive weed in North America and is a common lawn weed. The therapeutic components of purple nutsedge are located in the tubers (a type of underground stem), which resemble nuts in appearance (hence the name nutsedge).
Purple nutsedge has been used extensively in Asian therapies, especially Indian (Ayurvedic), Chinese, and Japanese (Kampo) traditions, to treat a wide variety of ailments, including bacterial infections, inflammation, and pain. In traditional medical systems in the Middle East, both fresh and dried forms of purple nutsedge have been used in a paste to heal skin wounds, ulcers, and sores.
Modern research on purple nutsedge has investigated its possible antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and weight control effects. At this time, there is a lack of high-quality human trials supporting the efficacy of purple nutsedge for any indication.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Analgesic (painkiller), antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antitussive (anti-cough), aphrodisiac (increases sex drive), astringent, back pain, blood disorders, blood flow stimulation, blood thinner, bursitis, cancer (cervical), carbuncles (abscesses), carminative (antigas), carpal tunnel syndrome, cervical spondylosis (excess wear on neck cartilage and bone), birth control, cosmetic uses, degenerative joint disease/osteoarthritis, demulcent (soothes and protects mucous membranes), dental cavities, diabetes, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), diarrhea, digestive system disorders, diuretic (improves urine flow), dysentery, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), emmenagogue (stimulates menstruation), enhanced immune function, epilepsy, estrogenic agent, eye inflammation (ophthalmia), fever, fibromyalgia, fragrance (detergents, perfumes, soaps), fungicide, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, high blood pressure, hives, immune stimulant, inflammatory conditions, itching, joint disorders, kidney stones, leprosy, leukemia, liver protection, lymphoma, malaria treatment, memory enhancement, menstrual disorders, nausea/vomiting, nocturnal leg cramps (night time leg cramps), pain (general), parasites and worms, rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, arthralgias, muscle pain), sciatica (back and leg pain), sedative, sexual function/impotence, skin care, skin ulcers, stimulant, tonic, weight loss, wound infection.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
There is no proven safe or effective dose of purple nutsedge in adults. Traditionally, purple nutsedge tea has been taken by mouth (prepared by boiling the powdered rhizome (underground stem) in water).
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose of purple nutsedge in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), its components, or members of the Cyperaceae family.
Side Effects and Warnings
Purple nutsedge may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Purple nutsedge may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, and medication adjustments may be necessary.
Avoid in patients with known allergy or hypersensitivity to Cyperus rotundus, its components, or any member of the Cyperaceae family.
Avoid in pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Avoid in pregnant and breastfeeding women, due to lack of sufficient scientific data.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Purple nutsedge may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Purple nutsedge may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Purple nutsedge may also interact with antibiotics, anticancer agents, antidiarrheals, anti-inflammatory agents, antimalarial agents, cholinesterase inhibitors, and drugs that affect GABA.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Purple nutsedge may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
Purple nutsedge may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Purple nutsedge may also interact with anticancer agents, antidiarrheals, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antimalarial herbs and supplements, antioxidants, and cholinergic herbs and supplements.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Ardestani A, Yazdanparast R. Cyperus rotundus suppresses AGE formation and protein oxidation in a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation. Int J Biol Macromol 12-1-2007;41(5):572-578. View Abstract
Ha JH, Lee KY, Choi HC, et al. Modulation of radioligand binding to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex by a new component from Cyperus rotundus. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(1):128-130. View Abstract
Kilani S, Ben Sghaier M, Limem I, et al. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the tubers infusion and extracts of Cyperus rotundus. Bioresour Technol 2008;99(18):9004-9008. View Abstract
Kilani S, Ledauphin J, Bouhlel I, et al. Comparative study of Cyperus rotundus essential oil by a modified GC/MS analysis method. Evaluation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects. Chem Biodivers 2008;5(5):729-742. View Abstract
Lemaure B, Touche, A, Zbinden I, et al. Administration of Cyperus rotundus tubers extract prevents weight gain in obese Zucker rats. Phytother.Res. 2007;21(8):724-730. View Abstract
Makino T, Wakushima H, Okamoto T, et al. Effects of Kangen-karyu on coagulation system and platelet aggregation in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25(4):523-525. View Abstract
Pal D, Dutta S, Sarkar A. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice. Acta Pol Pharm 2009;66(5):535-41. View Abstract
Raut NA, Gaikwad NJ. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Fitoterapia 2006;77(7-8):585-588. View Abstract
Sayed HM, Mohamed MH, Farag SF, et al. Fructose-amino acid conjugate and other constituents from Cyperus rotundus L. Nat Prod Res 2008;22(17):1487-1497. View Abstract
Sonwa MM, Konig WA. Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus. Phytochemistry 2001;58(5):799-810. View Abstract
Thebtaranonth C, Thebtaranonth Y, Wanauppathamkul S, et al. Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: structure of 10,12-peroxycalamenene, a sesquiterpene endoperoxide. Phytochemistry 1995;40(1):125-128. View Abstract
Uddin SJ, Mondal K, Shilpi JA, et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotundus. Fitoterapia 2006;77(2):134-136. View Abstract
Xu Y, Zhang HW, Yu CY, et al. Norcyperone, a novel skeleton norsesquiterpene from Cyperus rotundus L Molecules 2008;13(10):2474-2481. View Abstract
Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus. J Med Food 2007;10(4):667-674. View Abstract
Yu HH, Lee, DH, Seo, SJ, et al. Anticariogenic properties of the extract of Cyperus rotundus. Am J Chin Med 2007;35(3):497-505. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017