Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Alpha-Mangostin, ambisiasin, anthocyanic glycosides, benzophenone, Best-Mangosteen®, beta-mangostin, buah manggis (Malay), cay mang cut (Vietnamese), Clusiaceae, dao nian zi (Chinese), dulxanthone D, gamma-mangostin, garcinia (Italian), Garcinia mangostana Gaertn., Garcinia mangostana L., Garcinia mangostana Linn., garciniafuran, garcinone E, Guttiferae (family), king's fruit, maclurin, mang cut (Vietnamese), mang ko seu t'in (Korean), manggis (Dutch, Javanese, Malay, Tagalog), manggistan (Dutch, Malay), manggusta (Malay), mangkhut (Thai), mangkut (Thai), mangoosutin (Japanese), mangosta (Portuguese), mangostan (English, French), mangostán (Spanish), mangostana (Italian), Mangostanbaum (German), Mangostane (German), mangostanier (French), mangostannin, mangostano (Italian), mangostão (Portuguese), mangostenone C, mangostier (French), mangostin (German), mangosuchin (Japanese), mangosutin (Japanese), mangoustan (French), mangoustanier (French), mangoutse (French), mangoxanthone, manguita, mangushtanpazam, mangusta (Portuguese), mangustan (Russian), men-gu (Burmese), mesetor (Malay), pannerale, polysaccharides, prenylated xanthone, purple mangosteen, queen of fruits, sementah (Malay), semetah (Malay), shan zhu (Taiwanese), sugars, tannins, tavir, terpenoids, Thai-Go®, xango, XanGo®, xango juice, XanoMax®, xanthones.
Mangosteen is a tropical tree native to Asia. In southeast Asian traditional medicine, such as Thai indigenous medicine, the fruit hulls (pericarp) or rinds of mangosteen are used for many different conditions, including skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. Other plant parts, such as the leaves, bark, and fruit pulp, are also used in traditional medicine.
Mangosteen contains many active phytochemicals. One set of compounds, the prenylated xanthones, has been well-researched; there are several laboratory studies showing antibacterial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects, and studies in animals showing anti-inflammatory effects. However, currently there are no high-quality human trials supporting the effectiveness of mangosteen for any indication.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Abdominal pain, anaphylaxis, anthelminthic (expels worms), antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-viral, cancer, cardiotonic, CNS stimulant, cystitis, depression, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, eczema, gonorrhea, immune system stimulant, leukorrhea (vaginal discharge), liver health (hydrocholeretic), osteoarthritis, skin infections, tuberculosis, ulcers, urinary tract infections, wound healing (infections).
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for mangosteen.
Children (younger than 18 years):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for mangosteen, and use in children is not recommended.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to mangosteen.
Side Effects and Warnings
No studies on the short or long-term safety of mangosteen are currently available. When used as a food source, mangosteen seems to be well tolerated. However, laboratory study indicates that some mangosteen extracts and constituents may cause cardiovascular, central nervous system, and musculoskeletal adverse effects. Based on this preliminary study, use cautiously in patients with cardiovascular disease, clotting disorders, or using anticoagulation medicine. Also, use cautiously in patients using chemotherapeutic agents, as mangosteen may interact with chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents) whose mechanism of action involves oxidation.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Mangosteen is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Based on laboratory studies, mangosteen may increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Based on laboratory studies, mangosteen may have an anti-histamine effect. Caution is advised in patients taking anti-histamine medication.
Due to anti-oxidant effects, mangosteen may interact with chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents) whose mechanism of action involves oxidation.
Based on laboratory study, mangosteen may inhibit phosphodiesterase. Caution is advised in patients taking phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, before combining therapies.
Mangosteen may block serotonin receptors. Caution is advised in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant agents. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Based on laboratory studies, mangosteen may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Chomnawang MT, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn VS, et al. Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-3-2005;101(1-3):330-333. View Abstract
Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med 2002;68(11):975-979. View Abstract
Jung HA, Su BN, Keller WJ, et al. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric.Food Chem 3-22-2006;54(6):2077-2082. View Abstract
Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Kobayashi E, et al. Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 2003;66(8):1124-1127. View Abstract
Matsumoto K, Akao Y, Yi H, et al. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg.Med Chem 11-15-2004;12(22):5799-5806. View Abstract
Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Kaslungka S, et al. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):161-166. View Abstract
Moongkarndi P, Kosem N, Luanratana O, et al. Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Fitoterapia 2004;75(3-4):375-377. View Abstract
Nakatani K, Atsumi M, Arakawa T, et al. Inhibitions of histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by mangosteen, a Thai medicinal plant. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(9):1137-1141. View Abstract
Nakatani K, Yamakuni T, Kondo N, et al. gamma-Mangostin inhibits inhibitor-kappaB kinase activity and decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in C6 rat glioma cells. Mol.Pharmacol. 2004;66(3):667-674. View Abstract
Nguyen LH, Venkatraman G, Sim KY, et al. Xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia griffithii and Garcinia mangostana. Phytochemistry 2005;66(14):1718-1723. View Abstract
Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, et al. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208. View Abstract
Sato A, Fujiwara H, Oku H, et al. Alpha-mangostin induces Ca2+-ATPase-dependent apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in PC12 cells. J Pharmacol.Sci 2004;95(1):33-40. View Abstract
Suksamrarn S, Komutiban O, Ratananukul P, et al. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006;54(3):301-305. View Abstract
Suksamrarn S, Suwannapoch N, Phakhodee W, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 2003;51(7):857-859. View Abstract
Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol.Infect. 2005;11(6):510-512. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017