Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
1-methyl-2-amino-imidazol-4-one, 1-methylglycocyamidine, 1-methylhydantoin, 1-methylhydantoin-2-imide, 2-imino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one, 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl, 2-imino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one, 2-imino-1-methyl-4-imidazolidinone, 2-imino-1-methylimidazolidin-4-one, 4H-imidazol-4-one,2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl, 45514-66-7, 60-27-5, 82016-55-5, AI3-15321, AIDS166904, C00791, CHEMBANK986, creatine monohydrate, creatinine, creatinine (VAN) (8CI), EINECS 200-466-7, heated creatinine, mineral oil, NISTC60275, NSC-8752 injections, NSC13123, substance X, ZINC00895382, ZINC00967189.
It is claimed that krebiozen, originally called substance X, came from horses inoculated with Actinomyces bovis by Dr. Stevan Durovic. Durovic claimed that krebiozen had been useful in the treatment of spontaneous cancer, mainly in cats and dogs. It is unclear what kreboizin really contained; in some cases it was found to be creatine monohydrate and in other cases it contained mineral oil and l-methylhydantoin, a product of heating creatine monohydrate.
Several studies have failed to show beneficial results from kreboizen. Reports published by the Krebiozen Foundation found improvement in cancer patients, but these results were disproven by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Andrew Ivy (University of Illinois), Dr. Stevan Durovic, and Marko Durovic were brought to trial for violations of FDA regulations. There is currently no scientific proof that krebiozen is a viable treatment option for high blood pressure, cancer remission or any other condition.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Bilateral pneumonectomy (surgical removal of lung), bladder cancer, cancer (breast, cervical), high blood pressure.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (over 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for kreboizen in adults.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for kreboizen, and use in children is not recommended.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to creatine monohydrate.
Side Effects and Warnings
There is insufficient evidence to support the use of krebiozen. Patients should be made aware of the existing treatment options for their specific conditions, particularly treatments with demonstrated efficacy. Pain and mild icterus (jaundice) have been reported. Avoid use in patients with cancer as only negative data has been published.
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Kreboizen is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Insufficient available evidence.
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Insufficient available evidence.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Anon. STATUS report on "krebiozen". J Am Med Assoc 1951;147(9):864-873. View Abstract
Anon. Unproven methods of cancer management. Krebiozen and carcalon. CA Cancer J Clin 1973;23(2):111-115. View Abstract
Beck M. [Remedies and quackeries]. Acta Pharm Hung 1999;69(1):5-8. View Abstract
Holland JF. The krebiozen story. Is cancer quackery dead? JAMA 1967;200(3):213-218. View Abstract
Jallut O, Guex P, Barrelet L. [Unproven methods in oncology]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1984;114(36):1214-1220. View Abstract
Janssen WF. Cancer quackery--the past in the present. Semin Oncol 1979;6(4):526-536. View Abstract
Langer E. The Krebiozen case: what happened in Chicago. Science 1966;151(714):1061-1064. View Abstract
Stolinsky DC, Bateman JR. Recurrent masses at sites of prior Krebiozen (NSC-8752) injections. Cancer Chemother Rep 1974;58(2):249-250. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017