Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Amygdaloides latex, asthma spurge, bisabolane sesquiterpenoid, caper spurge, dieterpenoids (segetanes, jatrophanes, paralianes), Euphpekinensin, Euphorbia acaulis, Euphorbia alkaloid, Euphorbia antiquorum, Euphorbia balsamifera, Euphorbia capitata, Euphorbia characias, Euphorbia chrysocoma, Euphorbia dendroides, Euphorbia dracunculoides, Euphorbia ebracteolata, Euphorbia fischeriana, Euphorbia fulgens, Euphorbia genus, Euphorbia helioscopia, Euphorbia hermentiana, Euphorbia heterophylla, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia kansui, Euphorbia lancifolia, Euphorbia latex, Euphorbia lathyris, Euphorbia leuconeura, Euphorbia marginata, Euphorbia myrsinites, Euphorbia neriifolia, Euphorbia obtusifolia, Euphorbia paralias, Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia pekinensis, Euphorbia pilulifera, Euphorbia poisonii, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Euphorbia pubescens, Euphorbia rigida, Euphorbia royleana, Euphorbia serpyllifolia, Euphorbia tinctoria, Euphorbia tirucalli, Euphorbia triangularis, Euphorbia variegate, Euphorbia wallichii, ixbut, gopher spurge, Mediterranean spurge, petty spurge, pillbearing spurge, spotted spurge, snakeweed, thyme-leaves spurge, triterpenes, wolf's milk extract, ZeQi.
There are over 2,000 species of Euphorbia in the world, ranging from annual weeds to trees. Most originate in Africa and Madagascar, and a significant percentage of these are succulent. All contain latex and have a unique flower structure.
Native Americans used the plant for many medicinal purposes including treatment of skin infections (applied on the skin) and gonorrhea (internally). Traditionally, Euphorbia species have been used internally as laxatives and externally for rheumatism and skin conditions. However, nearly all the Euphorbias are poisonous and exude an acrid milky fluid when broken.
Euphorbia is stated to possess antitussive, antifungal and antitumor properties. There is mixed evidence showing euphorbia's effectiveness for chronic bronchitis, eczema, epilepsy and oral inflammation. Small doses tend to be expectorant and diaphoretic. Larger doses produce emesis (vomiting) usually without much pain or spasm, nausea or dizziness. The roots and leaves of euphorbia are a strong laxative. Petty spurge sap has traditionally been used as a wart cure.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Euphorbia helioscopia may benefit senior patients with chronic bronchitis. However, additional study is needed in this area to make a strong recommendation.
Early study of Euphorbia acaulis has demonstrated an effect on patients with both wet and dry eczema. More trials are needed to evaluate the effect of Euphorbia acaulis for eczema.
Euphorbia alkaloid, which is the active ingredient in Euphorbia fisheriana, may have anticonvulsant effects. Thus, this alkaloid might be useful in patients with epilepsy. Additional study is needed in this area.
Euphorbia balsamifera has been studied in patients with acute dental pulpitis, and may be comparable to that of pulpal nerve caustics. Additional study is necessary to make a strong recommendation.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Analgesic (pain reliever), antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, bloating, cancer, catarrh (inflammation of mucous membrane), diaphoretic (induces sweating), digestive problems, dysentery (severe diarrhea), emetic (induces vomiting), expectorant (encourages coughing up of mucous), gonorrhea, hay fever, immune system regulation, laryngeal spasm, laxative, multi-drug resistance, molluscicidal (kills mollusks), parasites/worms, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, skin conditions, tumors, warts.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (over 18 years old)
A 50 milligram tablet of pulverized plant administered three times daily for two to six weeks has been taken by mouth to treat both wet and dry eczema.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose of euphorbia in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Allergy or hypersensitivity to inhalation of pollen from Euphorbia fulgens Karw has been documented, but there is no relation to the toxic substances in the milk-sap of the Euphorbiaceae family.
Side Effects and Warnings
In general, the sap from euphorbia can cause contact dermatitis and injury to the eye. Euphorbia should be handled with caution using gloves and eye protection. Euphorbia may also irritate or affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and cause nausea and vomiting.
Euphorbia may enhance African Burkitt's lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Use cautiously in these patients, and consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Euphorbia is not recommended in pregnant and breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Euphorbia may interact with anticonvulsant medications or devitalizing agents. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, before combining any therapies.
Euphorbia has potential antitussive (preventing or relieving cough) effects, and may increase the effect or side effects if taken with other antitussive agents. Caution is advised.
Theoretically, euphorbia may interact with other hormone-regulating agents. Examples include menopausal agents or birth control pills.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Euphorbia may interact with herbs or supplements that have anticonvulsant effects or devitalizing effects. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, before combining any therapies.
Euphorbia has potential antitussive (preventing or relieving cough) effects, and may increase the effect or side effects if taken with other antitussive herbs or supplements. Caution is advised.
The aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta may decrease the effect of castor oil-induced diarrhea.
Theoretically, euphorbia may interact with other hormone-regulating herbs and supplements, such as black cohosh or St. John's wort.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Aya T, Kinoshita T, Imai S, et al. Chromosome translocation and c-MYC activation by Epstein-Barr virus and Euphorbia tirucalli in B lymphocytes. Lancet 5-18-1991;337(8751):1190. View Abstract
Betancur-Galvis L, Checa J, Marco JA, et al. Jatrophane diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia obtusifolia with inhibitory activity on the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain. Planta Med. 2003;69(2):177-178. View Abstract
Corea G, Fattorusso E, Lanzotti V, et al. Discovery and biological evaluation of the novel naturally occurring diterpene pepluanone as antiinflammatory agent. J Med.Chem 11-3-2005;48(22):7055-7062. View Abstract
Dai C, Yu B, Zhao Y, et al. [Correlation between inhibition activity of endophytic fungus from Euphorbia pekinensis and its host]. Ying.Yong.Sheng Tai Xue.Bao. 2005;16(7):1290-1294. View Abstract
Feizbakhsh A, Bighdeli M, Tehrani MS, et al. Chemical constituents of the essential oil of Euphorbia teheranica Boiss., a species endemic to Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2004;Jan/Feb
Ferreira MJ, Gyemant N, Madureira AM, et al. The effects of jatrophane derivatives on the reversion of. Anticancer Res 2005;25(6B):4173-4178. View Abstract
Hsueh KF, Lin PY, Lee SM, et al. Ocular injuries from plant sap of genera Euphorbia and Dieffenbachia. J.Chin Med.Assoc. 2004;67(2):93-98. View Abstract
Miyata S, Wang LY, Yoshida C, et al. Inhibition of cellular proliferation by diterpenes, topoisomerase II inhibitor. Bioorg.Med.Chem 11-24-2005; View Abstract
Natarajan D, Britto SJ, Srinivasan K, et al. Anti-bacterial activity of Euphorbia fusiformis-A rare medicinal herb. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-31-2005;102(1):123-126. View Abstract
Osato T, Mizuno F, Imai S, et al. African Burkitt's lymphoma and an Epstein-Barr virus-enhancing plant Euphorbia tirucalli. Lancet 5-30-1987;1(8544):1257-1258. View Abstract
Singh A, Singh SK. Molluscicidal evaluation of three common plants from India. Fitoterapia 2005;76(7-8):747-751. View Abstract
Valadares MC, Carrucha SG, Accorsi W, et al. Euphorbia tirucalli L. modulates myelopoiesis and enhances the resistance of tumour-bearing mice. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(2):294-299. View Abstract
Valente C, Pedro M, Ascenso JR, et al. Euphopubescenol and euphopubescene, two new jatrophane polyesters, and lathyrane-type diterpenes from Euphorbia pubescens. Planta Med. 2004;70(3):244-249. View Abstract
Yin ZQ, Fan CL, Ye WC, et al. Acetophenone derivatives and sesquiterpene from Euphorbia ebracteolata. Planta Med. 2005;71(10):979-982. View Abstract
Yu FR, Lian XZ, Guo HY, et al. Isolation and characterization of methyl esters and derivatives from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the human SGC-7901 cells. J Pharm.Pharm.Sci. 2005;8(3):528-535. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017