Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
2'-Chlorochrysin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-iodochrysin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 6-deoxy-6-desmethyl-4-desdimethylamino-tetracycline, 7-(4"-O-acetyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 7-(6"-O-acetyl)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 8-bromo-5-hydroxy-7-methoxychrysin, acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, alcohols, alkaloids, almindelig passionsblomst (Danish), amino acids, apricot vine, Australian fever-tree, baical skullcap, Baikal skullcap, balm of Gilead, blå passionsblomma (Swedish), black poplar, blaue Passionsblume (German), blauwe passiebloem (Dutch), blue crown passionflower, blue passionflower, blue-crown passionflower, Calicotome villosa, carrot, Cerasus vulgaris Miller, cherry, chrisina (Portuguese - Brazil), Christ's thorn, Chrysanthemum morifolium, clock flower, clock plant, common skullcap, coumarins, crisina (Portuguese - Brazil), Daucus carota Linn., Daucus carota ssp. carota, dietary flavonoids, diethyl chrysin-7-yl phosphate, eastern white pine, Eriodictyon californicum (Hook. et Arn.) Torr., espina de Cristo (Spanish), észak-amerikai golgotavirág (Hunagarian), Eucalyptus globulus Labill., flavone X, flavonoid, fleischfarbene Passionsblume (German), fleur de la passion (French), flor de pasión (Spanish), flower of the five wounds, galangin flavanone, genet, hardy garden mum, honey, kärsimyskukka (Finnish), läkepassionsblomma (Swedish), Leiden Christi (German), lillikoi, Manzana de Mayo, maracuja (Spanish), maracujá (Portuguese - Brazil), maracujá-azul (Portuguese - Brazil), mayapple, maypop, maypop herb, maypop passionflower, meczennica krwista (Polish), Mother-of-God's Star, mučenka jedlá (Czech), mučenka modrá (Czech), Muttergottes-Schuzchen (German), oak-leaved geranium, pasiflora (Spanish), pasionaria (Spanish), pasjonsblomst (Norwegian), Passiflora caerulea, Passiflora coerulea L., Passiflora edulis, Passifloraincarnata, Passifloraincarnate, Passifloraceae (family), passiflore (French), passiflore sauvage (French), passion flower, passion vine, passionblomma (Swedish), passionflower, Passionsblume (German), passionsblomst (Danish), Passionskraut (German), Pelargonium quercifoleum, phenylbenzopyrones, phytoestrogens, Pinus strobus L., Populus balsamifera L., Populus balsamifera var. hortensis, Populus nigra L., Populus tacamahaca Mill., Populus tacamahacca Mill., propolis, Prunus cerasus L., punakas kannatuslill (Estonian), purple passionflower, Scutellaria baicalensis, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Scutellaria galericulata L., Scutellaria macrantha Fisch., sinine kannatuslill (Estonian), Spartium junceum L., sugars, tetraethyl bis-phosphoric ester of chrysin, vill pasjonsblomst (Norwegian), wild passionflower, winterharte Passionsblume (German), yerba santa.
Combination products: ANDRO-6 (containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto).
Chrysin is a flavonoid, a compound found in fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids give plants their color and may have antibacterial effects.
Chrysin generally comes from passionflower (Passiflora incarnata and other Passiflora species) and is found in other plants, like yerba santa, Australian fever tree, eastern white pine, balm of Gilead, black poplar, Baikal skullcap, common skullcap, and genet (Spartium junceum L.), as well as in small amounts in honey and other bee products.
Research has found that chrysin may block aromatase, a compound that turns testosterone into estrogen. Because of this, it is believed that chrysin may help bodybuilders. Chrysin has also been studied for use in heart disease and cancer prevention and treatment. However, evidence is lacking, and more research is needed.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Antibacterial, anticoagulant (blood thinner), antidepressant, antiestrogen, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet (blood thinner), anxiety, atherosclerosis (clogged arteries), baldness, breast cancer, bodybuilding, cancer, cervical cancer, circulation improvement, connective tissue disorders, colorectal cancer, dental conditions, gout, heart disease, herpes simplex virus type 1, HIV/AIDS, hyperactivity (children), immunomodulation (affects the immune system), impotence, ischemia-reperfusion injury protection (tissue damage), jaundice, leukemia, lung cancer, lymphoma, menstrual disorders, muscle relaxant, osteoporosis, pain relief, prostate cancer, sedative, seizures, skin damage caused by the sun, sleep aid, stroke prevention, uterine cancer.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
To improve exercise performance, a combination product (ANDRO-6; containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto) has been taken by mouth daily for eight weeks.
Children (under 18 years old)
Chrysin has been taken by mouth to control hyperactivity and anxiety. However, information on dosing is not available.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to chrysin, Passiflora incarnata, or other members of the Passiflora family.
Side Effects and Warnings
Chrysin is considered safe when used daily in a combination product (ANDRO-6; containing 625 milligrams of chrysin, 300 milligrams of androstenedione, 150 milligrams of DHEA, 750 milligrams of Tribulus terrestris, 300 milligrams of indole-3-carbinol, and 540 milligrams of saw palmetto) for eight weeks. Chrysin has not been linked to any significantly negative side effects.
Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in people with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs or herbs and supplements that lower blood pressure.
Use cautiously in people receiving hormonal therapy and in those taking CYP1A substrates (drugs broken down by the liver), immunosuppressants, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 substrates, and vasodilators (blood vessel wideners).
Use cautiously in people with compromised immune systems.
Use cautiously in pregnant or breastfeeding women, due to a lack of safety data.
Avoid in people who are allergic or sensitive to chrysin, Passiflora incarnata, or other members of the Passiflora family.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
There is a lack of scientific evidence on the use of chrysin during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that lower blood pressure.
Chrysin may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. People using any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.
Chrysin may also react with agents that may increase sensitivity to light, agents that may lower seizure threshold, agents that may treat cancer, antibiotics, and hormonal agents.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Chrysin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
Chrysin may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the P450 system.
Chrysin may cause low blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that lower blood pressure.
Chrysin may react with antibacterials, herbs and supplements that my increase sensitivity to light, herbs and supplements that may treat cancer, hormonal herbs and supplements, resveratrol, and seizure threshold-lowering herbs and supplements.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Collins BM, McLachlan JA, Arnold SF. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phytochemicals with the human estrogen receptor expressed in yeast. Steroids 1997;62(4):365-372. View Abstract
Galijatovic A, Otake Y, Walle UK, et al. Extensive metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin by human Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells. Xenobiotica 1999;29(12):1241-1256. View Abstract
Gopalakrishnan A, Xu CJ, Nair SS, et al. Modulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and MAPK pathway by flavonoids in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Arch Pharm Res 2006;29(8):633-644. View Abstract
Han DH, Denison MS, Tachibana H, et al. Relationship between estrogen receptor-binding and estrogenic activities of environmental estrogens and suppression by flavonoids. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2002;66(7):1479-1487. View Abstract
Harris GK, Qian Y, Leonard SS, et al. Luteolin and chrysin differentially inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 expression and scavenge reactive oxygen species but similarly inhibit prostaglandin-E2 formation in RAW 264.7 cells. J Nutr 2006;136(6):1517-1521. View Abstract
Hougee S, Sanders A, Faber J, et al. Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-stimulated PBMC upon in vitro incubation with the flavonoids apigenin, luteolin or chrysin, due to selective elimination of monocytes/macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 1-15-2005;69(2):241-248. View Abstract
Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, et al. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(2):85-92. View Abstract
Lotito SB, Frei B. Dietary flavonoids attenuate tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. Structure-function relationships and activity after first pass metabolism. J Biol Chem 12-1-2006;281(48):37102-37110. View Abstract
Lyu SY, Rhim JY, Park WB. Antiherpetic activities of flavonoids against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28(11):1293-1301. View Abstract
Medina JH, Paladini AC, Wolfman C, et al. Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties. Biochem Pharmacol 11-15-1990;40(10):2227-2231. View Abstract
O'Leary KA, de Pascual-Tereasa S, Needs PW, et al. Effect of flavonoids and vitamin E on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription. Mutat.Res 7-13-2004;551(1-2):245-254. View Abstract
Sanderson JT, Hordijk J, Denison MS, et al. Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by natural and synthetic flavonoid compounds in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol Sci 2004;82(1):70-79. View Abstract
Uzel A, Sorkun K, Oncag O, et al. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples. Microbiol.Res 2005;160(2):189-195. View Abstract
Walle T, Otake Y, Brubaker JA, et al. Disposition and metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin in normal volunteers. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2001;51(2):143-146. View Abstract
Woodman OL, Chan EC. Vascular and anti-oxidant actions of flavonols and flavones. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31(11):786-790. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017