Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Alkaloids, Betoine (French), betonica (Spanish, Italian), Betonica officinalis, betonicolide, betonicosides A-D, Betonien (German), betulinic acid, bishopswort, bishop wort, D-camphor, delphinidin, diterpenoid, glycosides, heal-all, hedgenettle, hedge nettles, hyperoside, Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), lousewort, manganese, oleanolic acid, purple betony, rosmarinic acid, rutin, self-heal, stachydrine, Stachys atherocalyx C., Stachys betonica, Stachys bombycina, Stachys byzanthina C. Koch., Stachys byzantina, Stachys candida, Stachys chrysantha, Stachys grandidentata, Stachys inflata, Stachys lavandulifolia, Stachys officinalis, Stachys palustris L., Stachys parviflora, Stachys persica Gmel., Stachys plumose, Stachys recta, Stachys riederi, Stachys sieboldii, Stachys sieboldii (Miq.), tannins, ursolic acid, wood betony, woundwort.
The term "betony" is frequently used for many species of Stachys. Betony should not be confused with Canada lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis), which is also called wood betony.
Betony has been regarded as a cure-all by many societies including Greece, Italy, Spain, and Britain, as far back as 2,000 years ago. Its constituents include tannins, alkaloids and glycosides, which are typically the active ingredients in herbal remedies.
Its most commonly reported use is as a nervine (sedative or relaxing agent); the validity of this application has not been confirmed with clinical research.
Laboratory study has shown that betony may function as an anti-inflammatory, although this effect has not been confirmed. At this time, there are no clinical human trials supporting the use of betony for any indication.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Amenorrhea, anthelmintic (expels worms), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic (fever reducer), antiseptic, antispasmodic, anxiety, asthma, astringent, bronchitis, carminative (digestive aid), colds, diarrhea, diuretic, epilepsy, expectorant, gall bladder disorders, gout (foot inflammation), headache, heartburn, Helicobacter pylori infection, hepatitis, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), hypertension (high blood pressure), kidney stones, liver health, nephritis (kidney inflammation), nervousness, neuralgia (nerve pain), pain, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, sedative, stimulation of digestion, stress, tension, tonic, urolithiasis (kidney/urinary tract stones), vertigo, vulnerary (wound healing).
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for betony in adults. As an infusion, 2-4 grams dried herb infused in one cup of boiling water for 10-15 minutes and ingested three times daily has been used traditionally. As a liquid extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol), 2-4 milliliters three times per day has been used. Also, 2-6 milliliters of tincture (1:5 in 45% ethanol) has been taken one to four times per day in water.
Children (younger than 18 years):
There is no proven safe or effective dose for betony in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to betony or its constituents.
Side Effects and Warnings
There are currently no high quality studies on the medicinal applications of betony. Based on traditional use and expert opinion, use betony cautiously in patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) or hypotension (low blood pressure) due to potential hypotensive effects. Also use cautiously in patients with diabetes and hypoglycemia due to potential hypoglycemic (blood sugar lowering) effects.
Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal ulcers due to potential gastrointestinal irritation from betony's tannins.
Avoid in patients who are pregnant, or who are planning to become pregnant due to traditional use of betony for uterine stimulation.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Betony should not be used during pregnancy due to a traditional use indication for uterine stimulation (amenorrhea), suggesting a possibility of premature birth or miscarriage. Betony is not recommended in breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Although not well studied in humans, Stachys lavandulifolia has anxiolytic activity. Caution is advised when taking betony with other anxiolytics or sedatives.
Betony may alter blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also alter blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Betony contains glycosides and may have hypotensive activity. Caution is advised in patients taking blood-pressure lowering agents.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Although not well studied in humans, Stachys lavandulifolia has anxiolytic activity. Caution is advised when taking betony with other herbs with potential anti-anxiety or sedative effects.
Betony may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Betony may alter blood pressure. Caution is advised in patients taking herbs or supplements that may also alter blood pressure.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Ahmad VU, Arshad S, Bader S, et al. New phenethyl alcohol glycosides from Stachys parviflora. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2006;8(1-2):105-111. View Abstract
Duarte MC, Figueira GM, Sartoratto A, et al. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2-28-2005;97(2):305-311. View Abstract
Erdemoglu N, Turan NN, Cakici I, et al. Antioxidant activities of some Lamiaceae plant extracts. Phytother Res 2006;20(1):9-13. View Abstract
Hayashi K, Nagamatsu T, Ito M, et al. Acteoside, a component of Stachys sieboldii MIQ, may be a promising antinephritic agent (2): Effect of acteoside on leukocyte accumulation in the glomeruli of nephritic rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1994;66(1):47-52. View Abstract
Khanavi M, Sharifzadeh M, Hadjiakhoondi A, et al. Phytochemical investigation and anti-inflammatory activity of aerial parts of Stachys byzanthina C. Koch. J Ethnopharmacol 3-21-2005;97(3):463-468. View Abstract
Kukic J, Petrovic S, Niketic M. Antioxidant activity of four endemic Stachys taxa. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(4):725-729. View Abstract
Maleki N, Garjani A, Nazemiyeh H, et al. Potent anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extract from aerial parts of Stachys inflata on rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75(2-3):213-218. View Abstract
Matkowski A, Piotrowska M. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae. Fitoterapia 2006;77(5):346-353. View Abstract
Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Zarei HR. Anxiolytic effects of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89(2-3):271-276. View Abstract
Shin TY. Stachys riederi inhibits mast cell-mediated acute and chronic allergic reactions. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol 2004;26(4):621-630. View Abstract
Skaltsa HD, Demetzos C, Lazari D, et al. Essential oil analysis and antimicrobial activity of eight Stachys species from Greece. Phytochemistry 2003;64(3):743-752. View Abstract
Skaltsa HD, Lazari DM, Chinou IB, et al. Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Stachys candida and S. chrysantha from southern Greece. Planta Med 1999;65(3):255-256. View Abstract
Skaltsa H, Bermejo P, Lazari D, et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 in mouse peritoneal macrophages and thromboxane B2 production in human platelets by flavonoids from Stachys chrysantha and Stachys candida. Biol Pharm Bull 2000;23(1):47-53. View Abstract
Stamatis G, Kyriazopoulos P, Golegou S, et al. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Greek herbal medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;88(2-3):175-179. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017