Oral Medicines for Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes pills can help to manage your blood sugar. These pills are not insulin. They work to manage your blood sugar in several ways. You may be given a combination of medicines. Always follow your healthcare provider's instructions.
Some pills may put you at higher risk for low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Watch for symptoms of low blood sugar. Symptoms are listed below. Call your healthcare provider if low blood sugar happens often.
Type of diabetes pills
These pills help control the amount of glucose in your blood. They do this by decreasing the amount of glucose made by your liver and helping your muscles use insulin more effectively. These medicines are usually taken with or after each meal. Possible side effects and other problems include:
Belly (abdominal) bloating
Excess gas (flatulence)
Metallic taste in mouth
Lower blood vitamin B12 levels from decreased absorption from the GI tract of this essential vitamin
Have your vitamin B12 levels checked regularly if you have used Biguanides for a long time. This is especially important if you have anemia or peripheral neuropathy.
These pills help your body make more insulin. They are usually taken 30 minutes before a meal. Possible side effects include hypoglycemia.
These pills slow the digestion of sugars and starches. They can help keep your blood sugar from going too high after a meal. Take them with the first bite of each main meal. Possible side effects include:
Excess gas (flatulence)
These pills help your muscle cells use insulin better. Your healthcare provider may order lab tests to check the function of your liver before prescribing these pills and regularly while you are taking them. Possible side effects include:
Extra fluid in your body and swelling
Increased risk for heart failure
Osteoporosis and increased risk for broken bones
These pills increase your insulin for a short period of time. They are usually taken before meals. Possible side effects include:
Low blood sugar
Slightly increased risk for heart problems
These pills help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. They are less likely to cause hypoglycemia, unless you take them with a sulfonylurea. They are taken once a day. Possible side effects include:
Upper respiratory tract infection
Stuffy or runny nose
Other side effects are under investigation.
These pills help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes by increasing the amount of sugar that leaks into the urine. Possible side effects include:
Urinary tract infections
Genital infections, especially in women
Dehydration and low blood pressure
Increased bone fractures
Development of keotacidosis while blood sugar is only mildly raised above the target range
Note: The FDA has issued a safety warning for the SGLT-2 inhibitor canagliflozin. Recent studies have shown that this medicine increases the risk of leg and foot amputations. If you are taking this medicine, tell your healthcare provider right away if you have any new pain or tenderness, sores, or infections in your legs or feet. Talk with your healthcare provider before stopping any diabetes medicine.
Dopamine D2 receptor agonist (bromocriptine mesylate)
These pills help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Possible side effects of this medicine include:
These medicines may help keep your blood glucose within your target range. They also help your pancreas make more insulin and may help your muscles use insulin more effectively. Side effects depend on which type of combination you use. Your healthcare provider can tell you more.
Watch for symptoms of hypoglycemia
Symptoms include the following:
Shakiness or dizziness
Cold, clammy skin; sweating
A hard, fast heartbeat
Confusion or irritability
October 13, 2017
Acarbose: Drug Information. UptoDate., Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and lipase inhibitors for treatment of diabetes mellitus. UptoDate., Glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. UptoDate., Management of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. UptoDate., Metformin in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. UptoDate., Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2017. American Diabetes Association., Sulfonylureas and meglitinides in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. UptoDate., Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. UptoDate.
Brown, Kim, APRN,Hurd, Robert, MD,Turley, Ray, BSN, MSN,Turley, Raymond Kent, BSN, MSN, RN