What is Ebola?
Ebola is a virus that causes fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, and sometimes problems with how your blood clots. It used to be known as a hemorrhagic fever virus. This is because the clotting problems lead to internal bleeding, as blood leaks from small blood vessels in your body. The virus also causes inflammation and tissue damage. In 2014 to 2015 a major epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in West Africa. No primary infection has occurred in other areas of the world.
Ebola is spread through direct contact with body fluids of people infected with it. These fluids are blood, saliva, sweat, tears, mucus, vomit, feces, breast milk, urine, and semen. It is also spread by touching things that have been contaminated with these fluids.
Ebola is hard to treat, and may cause death about 10 days after symptoms start.
What are the symptoms of Ebola?
Symptoms of Ebola can start 2 to 21 days after being infected by the virus. They most often start about 8 to 10 days after being exposed to the virus. The first symptoms may seem like the flu.
Early symptoms include:
These symptoms show up several days later:
Nausea and vomiting
Less urine or no urine
Unusual bleeding or bruising
Red rash that doesn’t itch or hurt, and may peel after awhile
Redness and bleeding from the eyes, nose, mouth, and rectum
Later stages of the illness can cause:
Inflammation of the brain
Lack of blood flow in the body (shock)
How is Ebola diagnosed?
The health care providers will ask about your medical history. They will also ask about when you were exposed to Ebola. They may ask about your recent travel and contact with sick people.
You will have tests to check for the cause of your symptoms. The symptoms of Ebola can also be caused by other viruses and bacteria. You may have tests such as:
Blood tests. Blood is taken from a vein in your arm or hand. This is done to check for certain chemicals that can show if you have an Ebola infection or other illness. Blood tests also check for problems with your blood, and your kidneys, liver, and other organs.
Oral swab. A stick with a small piece of cotton at the tip is wiped inside your mouth. This is done to check for viruses and bacteria in your saliva.
Urine test. A sample is collected when you urinate. This is done to look for bacteria that may be causing your symptoms.
Stool culture. A small sample of stool is collected from your rectum or from a bowel movement. The sample is checked for viruses and bacteria.
Sputum culture. A small sample of mucus coughed from the lungs is collected. It is checked for viruses and bacteria.
How is Ebola treated?
Currently no medicine is available to cure Ebola. Treatment for Ebola is done to help support your body while it fights the disease. This is known as supportive care. It includes therapies that help your body during severe illness. Supportive care may include:
Fluids given through a vein (IV) to help keep your body hydrated
Supplemental oxygen or assisted ventilation to keep enough oxygen in your body
Dialysis to help clear waste from the blood
Vasopressors to help raise blood pressure that is too low
Medicines to help your blood clot
Blood, urine, and other tests may be done regularly. This is to check for chemicals that show how well the organs are working. The tests also look for signs of the virus that continue or go away. Your blood pressure will be checked regularly.
In rare cases, experimental treatment may be used. These are treatments that are not yet proven to work, but may work. They are not approved by the FDA, but may be allowed in some cases. Experimental treatments may include:
Convalescent serum. This is the liquid part of blood (serum) taken from a person who is recovering from Ebola. It is then put into the body of a person sick with Ebola.
Medicines. This includes medicines that act on blood-clotting factors or parts of the Ebola virus.
Who is at risk for Ebola?
If you’ve been to a place such as West Africa where people have been sick with Ebola or where animals may carry Ebola, you may be at risk for infection. You are at risk if you:
Were in a place where Ebola patients were being treated and you had contact with them
Touched blood or body fluids (saliva, sweat, tears, mucus, vomit, feces, breast milk, urine, or semen) from a person with Ebola
Touched sheets, towels, clothes, personal objects, or other items that had contact with a person with Ebola
How can Ebola be prevented?
There is currently no vaccine for Ebola. Prevention is done by avoiding contact with the virus, and taking special care around the virus. To protect yourself:
Follow all instructions you are given if you are in an area with Ebola.
Wash your hands often, using soap and water. Or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer often.
Don't touch your eyes, nose, or mouth with your hands. If you must, make sure to wash your hands first.
Cover any cuts, scrapes, or other wounds you have.
Don’t touch body fluids from a person with Ebola.
Don’t touch sheets, clothes, towels, medical supplies, or personal items of a person with Ebola.
Healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease routinely wear caps covering their head, a mask shielding their face, and gowns and boots covering their body and shoes. They breathe air only through special respirators.
What to do if you are at risk for Ebola
If you have been exposed to Ebola:
Call your healthcare provider. He or she can talk with local health staff to see what action may be needed.
Keep watch for early symptoms of Ebola for 21 days.
Take your temperature every morning and evening. This is to check for fever.
If you have a fever or other Ebola symptoms:
Don’t panic. Keep in mind that other illnesses can cause similar symptoms.
Call the nearest hospital emergency room. Explain that you have been exposed to Ebola and have symptoms. Do this before going to the hospital. This will help the hospital staff get ready for your arrival.
Keep in mind that hospital staff may wear protective equipment, such as masks, gowns, gloves, and eye protection. This is to prevent the possible virus from spreading.
Follow all instructions the hospital staff gives you.
After recovery from Ebola
After recovering from Ebola, you may have body aches, weakness, eye irritation, or changes in vision or severe joint pain, for weeks or months. Ebola can last in semen for at least 3 months after recovery. A man should use a condom, or not have sex. Women should not breastfeed until talking with their healthcare provider. A person who has recovered from Ebola may be immune for at least 10 years or longer. It is not known if this includes immunity to all types of the virus.
For more information
To learn more about Ebola, visit the CDC.
October 09, 2017
Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Ebola virus disease. UpToDate., Diseases potentially acquired by travel to Central Africa. UpToDate., Ebola Basics. CDC., Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease. UpToDate., Prevention _ Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever. CDC., Treatment and prevention of Ebola virus disease. UpToDate., What you need to know about Ebola. CDC.
Freeborn, Donna, PhD, CNM, FNP,Lentnek, Arnold, MD