Hyperthyroidism has several causes. These include:
- Graves' disease. This is an autoimmune disorder. It is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It happens when an antibody overstimulates the thyroid. This condition is most often found in young to middle-aged women. It also tends to run in families.
- Toxic nodular goiter. This condition happens when 1 or more lumps (nodules) of the thyroid gland become too active. Health experts don't know what causes this to happen.
- Thyroiditis. It occurs when the thyroid becomes irritated. It temporarily causes the thyroid to be overactive. The thyroid then often becomes underactive.
Hyperthyroidism may occur for other reasons. These include:
- Taking too much thyroid hormone medicine to treat an underactive thyroid
- Having too much iodine in your diet
- Having a noncancer (benign) tumor in the pituitary gland that makes your thyroid overactive
These things may make it more likely for you to have hyperthyroidism:
- You are a woman
- You are older than age 60
- You have had thyroid problems in the past
- Your family has a history of thyroid problems
- You have certain conditions, such as type 1 diabetes
- You consume too much iodine. This can happen if you eat a lot of iodine-rich foods or take too much medicine that has this chemical.
- You are pregnant or have had a baby in the last 6 months
Symptoms and signs are different for each person. Here are the most common ones:
- Sweating more than normal
- Thinning of the skin
- Fine, brittle hair
- Weak muscles, especially in the upper arms and thighs
- Shaky hands
- Fast heartbeat (palpitations)
- High blood pressure
- More bowel movements than normal
- Weight loss
- Problems sleeping
- Prominent eyes
- Sensitivity to bright light
- Irregular menstrual cycle in women
- Tiredness and lack of energy (fatigue)
- Thyroid gland is larger than normal (goiter)
These symptoms may look like other health problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Your healthcare provider will ask about your medical history. You will also need an exam. Other tests that can help diagnose hyperthyroidism include:
- Blood tests. They can measure the amount of thyroid hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone in your blood.
- Thyroid ultrasound. This test can see if your thyroid gland has any nodules.
- Thyroid scan. This test uses a radioactive substance to make an image of the thyroid.
The goal of treatment is to have your thyroid gland work as it should. The gland will then make normal levels of thyroid hormone. Your healthcare provider will figure out the best treatment for you based on:
- Your age, overall health, and past health
- How sick you are
- How well you can handle certain medicines, treatments, or therapies
- Your type of hyperthyroidism
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Medicine. It can help lower the level of thyroid hormones in the blood.
- Radioactive iodine. It comes in the form of a pill or liquid. It can help slow down how much thyroid hormones are made.
- Surgery. You may need to have all or part of your thyroid removed.
- Beta blockers. These medicines block the action of the thyroid hormone on the body. That helps with rapid heart rate and palpitations.
If your hyperthyroidism is not treated, these complications may happen:
- Thyroid crisis, when symptoms get worse because of stress or illness
- Heart problems, such as an abnormal rhythm or heart failure
- Weak, brittle bones (osteoporosis)
- Pregnancy problems, such as miscarriage, early delivery, and preeclampsia or high blood pressure
Tell your healthcare provider if your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms. If you are a woman of childbearing age and want to become pregnant, talk with your provider first.
- Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is too active. This tiny gland is found in your neck. If it is overactive, it makes too much thyroid hormone. Your body’s metabolism then begins to work at a faster rate.
- This condition can be caused by Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, and taking too much thyroid medicine.
- Symptoms may include nervousness, irritability, extra sweating (perspiration), and fine, brittle hair.
- Treatment may include medicine, radioactive iodine, surgery, or beta-blocking medicine.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
January 16, 2018
Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Bahn Rebecca S. Endocrine Practice. 2011;17(3):s593–s646.
Hurd, Robert, MD , Hurd, Robert, MD