According to the CDC, about 8,000 snakebites happen in the U.S. each year. Even a bite from a "harmless" snake can cause infection or allergic reaction in some people. For your safety, treat all snakebites as if they were venomous and get to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible. This is especially true if you aren't sure of the exact type of snake that bit you. With the correct treatment (antivenin), you can prevent severe illness or death. Antivenin, also called antivenom, is a treatment specific to the venom of a particular animal or insect.
If you often spend time in wilderness areas, camp, hike, picnic, or live in snake-inhabited areas, learn the potential dangers posed by venomous snakes. You should:
Know how to identify venomous snakes
Be able to get to medical help in case of emergency
Be aware that snakes are more active during warmer months
What snakes are venomous?
The most common venomous snakebites are caused by the following snakes:
Pit vipers. These include rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouth (water moccasin) snakes.
Rattlesnake bites cause most of the venomous bites in the U.S. Coral snakes and imported exotic snakes cause a much smaller number of snakebites.
What are the symptoms of venomous bites?
Different snakes have different types of venom and symptoms may differ. The following are the most common symptoms of venomous snakebites:
Bloody wound discharge
Excessive bleeding and difficulty with clotting of blood
Fang marks in the skin and swelling at the site of the bite
Severe pain at the bite site
Discoloration, such as redness and bruising
Enlarged lymph nodes in the area affected
Loss of muscle coordination
Nausea and vomiting
Numbness and tingling, especially in the mouth
Altered mental state
The symptoms of a venomous snakebite may look like other health conditions or problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Treatment for snakebites
Call for emergency help right away if someone has been bitten by a snake. Responding quickly in this type of emergency is crucial. While waiting for emergency help:
Wash the bite with soap and water.
Keep the bitten area still and lower than the heart.
Cover the area with a clean, cool compress or a moist dressing to ease swelling and discomfort.
Monitor breathing and heart rate.
Remove all rings, watches, and constrictive clothing, in case of swelling.
Note the time of the bite so that it can be reported to an emergency room healthcare provider if needed.
If possible, try to remember to draw a circle around the affected area and mark the time of the bite and the initial reaction. If you are able, redraw the circle around the site of injury marking the progression of time.
It is helpful to remember what the snake looks like, its size, and the type of snake if you know it, in order to tell the emergency room staff.
Don't apply a tourniquet.
Don't try to suck the venom out.
At the emergency department you may be given:
Antibiotics to prevent or treat developing infections
Medicine to treat your pain
A special type of antivenin depending on the type of snake that bit you and the severity of your symptoms
Some bites are nearly impossible to prevent. These include a snake that bites you when you accidentally step on it in the woods. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of being bitten by a snake. These include:
Leave snakes alone. Many people are bitten because they try to kill a snake or get too close to it.
Stay out of tall grass unless you wear thick leather boots and remain on hiking paths as much as possible.
Keep hands and feet out of areas you can't see. Don't pick up rocks or firewood unless you are out of a snake's striking distance.
Be cautious and alert when climbing rocks.
March 21, 2017
Management of Crotalinae (rattlesnake, water moccasin [cottonmouth], or copperhead) bites in the United States. UpToDate
Kolbus, Karin, RN, DNP, COHN-S,Perez, Eric, MD