Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can happen in people with diabetes. DKA should be treated as a medical emergency. This is because it can lead to coma or death. If you have the symptoms of DKA, get medical help right away.
DKA happens more often in people with type 1 diabetes. But it can happen in people with type 2 diabetes. It can also happen in women with diabetes during pregnancy. This is often known as gestational diabetes.
DKA happens when insulin levels are too low. Without enough insulin, sugar (glucose) can’t get to the cells of your body. The glucose stays in the blood. This causes high blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Without glucose, your body breaks down stored fat for energy. When this happens, acids called ketones are released into the blood. This is known as ketosis. High levels of ketones (ketoacidosis) can be harmful to you. Hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis can also cause serious problems in the blood and your body, such as:
Low levels of potassium (hypokalemia)
Swelling inside the brain (cerebral edema)
Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
Damage to kidneys or other organs
What causes diabetic ketoacidosis?
In people with diabetes, DKA is most often caused by too little insulin in the body. It is also caused by:
Poor management of diabetes
Infections like a urinary tract infection or pneumonia
Serious health problems, such as a heart attack
Reactions to certain prescribed medicines and illicit drugs
Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
DKA most often happens slowly over time. But it can worsen in a few hours if you are vomiting. The first symptoms are:
Thirst and dry mouth
Urinating a lot
Nausea or vomiting
Breath that smells fruity (from the ketones)
Over time, these symptoms may happen:
Dry or flushed skin
Nausea and vomiting
Loss of appetite
Trouble thinking or confusion
Feeling very tired or weak. This can lead to coma.
How is diabetic ketoacidosis diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will ask about your medical history. He or she will give you a physical exam. You may also have these tests:
Blood tests to check your glucose levels
Blood tests to check your electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium
Urine test to check for ketones
These tests are done to check for DKA, and monitor it over time.
How is diabetic ketoacidosis treated?
DKA needs treatment right away in the hospital. Treatment includes:
Insulin. This is the main type of treatment. Insulin allows the cells to use the glucose in the blood. This lowers the levels of both blood glucose and ketones.
Fluids and electrolytes. These are given through a vein (IV). Fluids are replaced and abnormal electrolyte levels are corrected.
Other medicines. These may be given to treat an illness that caused DKA. For example, antibiotics may be given to treat a urinary tract infection that caused DKA.
Preventing diabetic ketoacidosis
To help prevent DKA, make sure you:
Take all of your medicines for diabetes exactly as prescribed. This includes insulin.
Check your blood glucose levels exactly as instructed.
Be especially careful when you are sick with an illness or an infection. Take extra care to follow diabetes care instructions. Check your blood glucose more often.
Do not exercise when your blood sugar is high and you have ketones in your urine.
Check your urine ketone levels if told to do so. This is done with a urine test strip. Ask your healthcare provider how often to check your urine.
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your healthcare provider right away if you:
Have symptoms of DKA
Have very high blood glucose levels
Are getting sick with another illness
October 14, 2017
Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis. UpToDate
Hurd, Robert, MD,Sather, Rita, RN