Perilla (Perilla frutescens)
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
L-perillyl alcohol, alpha-linolenic acid, ao shiso, apigenin, baisu, ban tulsi (Bengali), beefsteak plant, bhanjira (Hindi), caffeic acid, Chinese basil, chi-ssu (Chinese), common perilla, d-limonene, dihydroperillic acid, egoma (Japanese), hung-sha-yao (Chinese), ji soo, kkaennip namul (Korean), Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), limonene, luteolin, m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, methyl caffeate, monoterpene, monoterpene perillyl alcohol, perilla seed oil, perilla seed perillaldehyde, perilla oil, perillic acid, perilloside A, perilloside C, perillyl alcohol, Perilla frutescens, purple mint, purple perilla, rattlesnake weed, red perilla, rosmarinic acid, trans-caffeic acid, shiso (Japanese), shisonoha (Japanese, red leaved form), summer coleus, trans-carveol, trans-m-coumaric acid, ts'ao-t'ou (Chinese), tsu-shih ts'ao (Chinese), tzu ssu (Chinese), wild basil, wild coleus, wild red basil, yeh-ssu (Chinese), zisu.
Perilla is a traditional crop of China, India, Japan, Korea, Thailand, and other Asian countries. In North America, it is occasionally called by its Japanese name, shiso. In North America, it is also known as purple mint, Chinese basil, or wild coleus. Perilla seed oil is used for cooking, as a drying oil, and as a fuel. Perilla seed oil is high in the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid.
Asian practitioners prescribe perilla for respiratory afflictions and prevention, pregnancy concerns, seafood poisoning, and "incorrect energy balance."
Some evidence is available for the use of perilla oil for reduction in asthma symptoms, as well as use of perilla extract for seasonal allergies. More clinical evidence is required before recommendations can be made for any clinical usage of perilla.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Preliminary evidence suggests some benefit of perilla extract for seasonal allergies. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
Aphthous stomatitis (mouth ulcer or canker sore)
Preliminary evidence suggests there is no benefit of perilla oil over soybean oil for aphthous stomatitis prevention. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
Preliminary evidence suggests some benefit of perilla oil for symptoms of asthma. Further clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), atopic dermatitis, blood pressure control (lowering), brain function improvement, cancer, cardiovascular disease, colds, constipation, cough, Crohn's disease, dental caries (prevention), depression, diabetes, fever, hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol), hypertriglyceridemia (high levels of triglycerides or fatty acid compounds in the blood), gastrointestinal disorders, immunomodulation, leukemia, lung conditions, memory, nausea and vomiting, obesity, osteoporosis, poisoning (seafood), pregnancy (morning sickness), pregnancy problems, respiratory tract infections, rosacea (skin condition characterized by red, oily skin and acne), schizophrenia, sedative, stress.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for perilla. Traditionally, a tea (boiling water to 1/4 cup dry herb, steep 10 to 15 minutes), consumed throughout the day has been used for colds, flu, sore throat, and congestion. For asthma, perilla seed oil for four weeks has been used. For seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, Perilla frutescens enriched with rosmarinic acid (200 milligrams or 50 milligrams) for three weeks has been used. Perilla has also been boiled and the steam has been inhaled to clear the sinuses.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for perilla in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to perilla. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Perilla frutescens has been documented.
Side Effects and Warnings
Perilla used in recommended doses is considered to be safe and well tolerated. In one study, patients reported no adverse events and no significant abnormalities were detected in routine blood tests. However, occupational allergic contact dermatitis from Perilla frutescens has been documented.
Use commercial perilla oil cautiously in patients with cancer, due to a mutagen formed in the oil, from omega-3 fatty acids.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Perilla is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Perilla frutescens may contain sedative constituents. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery.
Although not well studied in humans, perilla may lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Caution is advised in patients with high cholesterol or those taking any cholesterol-lowering agents.
Theoretically, perilla may suppress indomethacin-induced effects, due to a change in fatty acid and eicosanoid status. Caution is advised in patients taking indomethacin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Perilla frutescens may contain sedative constituents, and may interact with other herbs that have sedative properties. Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery.
Theoretically, the results from an animal study suggest that the combination of perilla and beta-carotene may reduce the risk of colon cancer.
Theoretically, perilla may lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Caution is advised in patients with high cholesterol or those taking any cholesterol-lowering agents, such as red yeast rice.
Theoretically, use of fish oil or omega-3 fatty acid sources (flax oil, walnut oil, soybean oil) and perilla oil would increase omega-3 fatty acid status of blood and tissues to a greater effect than either alone. Caution is advised.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Baba S, Osakabe N, Natsume M, et al. Absorption, metabolism, degradation and urinary excretion of rosmarinic acid after intake of Perilla frutescens extract in humans. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(1):1-9. View Abstract
Banno N, Akihisa T, Tokuda H, et al. Triterpene acids from the leaves of Perilla frutescens and their anti-inflammatory and antitumor-promoting effects. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2004;68(1):85-90. View Abstract
Gulcin I, Berashvili D, Gepdiremen A. Antiradical and antioxidant activity of total anthocyanins from Perilla pankinensis decne. J Ethnopharmacol 10-3-2005;101(1-3):287-293. View Abstract
Hamazaki K, Itomura M, Hamazaki T, et al. Effects of cooking plant oils on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nutrition 2006;22(5):534-538. View Abstract
Kawai K, Matsuno K, Kasai H. Detection of 4-oxo-2-hexenal, a novel mutagenic product of lipid peroxidation, in human diet and cooking vapor. Mutat.Res 2-28-2006;603(2):186-192. View Abstract
Kim DS, Kim HR, Woo ER, et al. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on adriamycin-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species and the activations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Biochem Pharmacol 10-1-2005;70(7):1066-1078. View Abstract
Kim HK, Choi H. Stimulation of acyl-CoA oxidase by alpha-linolenic acid-rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. Life Sci 8-5-2005;77(12):1293-1306. View Abstract
Kim JH, Jin YR, Park BS, et al. Luteolin prevents PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibition of PDGF beta-receptor phosphorylation. Biochem Pharmacol 6-15-2005;69(12):1715-1721. View Abstract
Kim JS, Lee HJ, Lee MH, et al. Luteolin inhibits LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 microglial cells. Planta Med 2006;72(1):65-68. View Abstract
Ko WC, Shih CM, Leu IJ, et al. Mechanisms of relaxant action of luteolin in isolated guinea pig trachea. Planta Med 2005;71(5):406-411. View Abstract
Osakabe N, Yasuda A, Natsume M, Yoshikawa T. Rosmarinic acid inhibits epidermal inflammatory responses: anticarcinogenic effect of Perilla frutescens extract in the murine two-stage skin model. Carcinogenesis 2004;25(4):549-557. View Abstract
Peng Y, Ye J, Kong J. Determination of phenolic compounds in Perilla frutescens L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. J Agric.Food Chem 10-19-2005;53(21):8141-8147. View Abstract
Qiao S, Li W, Tsubouchi R, et al. Rosmarinic acid inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in RAW264.7 macrophages. Free Radic.Res 2005;39(9):995-1003. View Abstract
Sanbongi C, Takano H, Osakabe N, et al. Rosmarinic acid in perilla extract inhibits allergic inflammation induced by mite allergen, in a mouse model. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34(6):971-977. View Abstract
Takagi S, Goto H, Shimada Y, et al. Vasodilative effect of perillaldehyde on isolated rat aorta. Phytomedicine 2005;12(5):333-337. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017