Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Cytokinins, furfural, furfuryladenine, hyaluronidase, isopentenyladenine (IPA), kinerase, kinesin-I, kinetin, kinetin riboside.
Kinetin is a chemical analogue of cytokinins, a class of plant hormones that promotes cell division. Kinetin is found in both plants and animals.
Scientific studies have investigated whether kinetin might help lower side effects associated with cataract surgery, aid in the treatment of Meniere's disease or decrease eye blood pressure. Currently, there is not enough scientific evidence to support any of these uses.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Side effects of cataract surgery may include pain, infection, swelling, bleeding, or retinal detachment. The use of kinetin during cataract surgery may lower adverse effects associated with cataracts. More research is needed in this area.
Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear, which causes hearing loss, ringing in the ear, and the sensation that one's surroundings are spinning. Kinetin may be beneficial for patients with Meniere's disease. However, additional study is needed in this area.
Ocular disorders (eye blood pressure)
Kinetin may decrease blood pressure in the eye, although currently there is insufficient available evidence to draw a strong conclusion.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Aging, antioxidant, cancer, leukemia, nervous system disorders (familial dysautonomia), photoprotection, skin aging, surgical uses (adhesion prevention), thrombosis (blood clots).
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (over 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for kinetin in adults.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for kinetin in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to kinetin.
Side Effects and Warnings
Kinetin may have the following adverse effects: blood thinning effects, increased coagulation (blood clotting) time, inhibited platelet aggregation, and prolonged or increased bleeding.
Use cautiously in patients with coagulation or hematologic (blood) disorders or taking anticoagulants or antiplatelets (blood thinners).
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Kinetin is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Kinetin may have antioxidant effects. Use cautiously in patients taking antioxidants due to possible additive effects.
Kinetin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Kinetin may inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis, and stimulate cell differentiation. Use cautiously in patients with cancer or taking anticancer agents.
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Kinetin may have antioxidant effects. Use cautiously in patients taking antioxidant herbs or supplements due to possible additive effects.
Kinetin may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs or supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto.
Kinetin may inhibit cell growth, induce apoptosis, and stimulate cell differentiation. Use cautiously in patients with cancer or taking anticancer herbs or supplements.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Adunka O, Moustaklis E, Weber A, et al. Labyrinth anesthesia--a forgotten but practical treatment option in Meniere's disease. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol.Relat Spec. 2003;65(2):84-90. View Abstract
Barciszewski J, Mielcarek M, Stobiecki M, et al. Identification of 6-furfuryladenine (kinetin) in human urine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 12-9-2000;279(1):69-73. View Abstract
Barciszewski J, Siboska GE, Pedersen BO, et al. Furfural, a precursor of the cytokinin hormone kinetin, and base propenals are formed by hydroxyl radical damage of DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 9-18-1997;238(2):317-319. View Abstract
Glaser DA, Rogers C. Topical and systemic therapies for the aging face. Facial.Plast.Surg Clin North Am 2001;9(2):189-96, vii. View Abstract
Griffaut B, Bos R, Maurizis JC, et al. Cytotoxic effects of kinetin riboside on mouse, human and plant tumour cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2004;34(4):271-275. View Abstract
Hipkiss AR. On the "struggle between chemistry and biology during aging"--implications for DNA repair, apoptosis and proteolysis, and a novel route of intervention. Biogerontology. 2001;2(3):173-178. View Abstract.
Honma Y, Ishii Y. Differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells by plant redifferentiation-inducing hormones. Leuk.Lymphoma 2002;43(9):1729-1735. View Abstract
Hsiao G, Shen MY, Lin KH, et al. Inhibitory activity of kinetin on free radical formation of activated platelets in vitro and on thrombus formation in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 4-4-2003;465(3):281-287. View Abstract
Ishii Y, Hori Y, Sakai S, et al. Control of differentiation and apoptosis of human myeloid leukemia cells by cytokinins and cytokinin nucleosides, plant redifferentiation-inducing hormones. Cell Growth Differ. 2002;13(1):19-26. View Abstract
Ishii Y, Kasukabe T, Honma Y. Immediate up-regulation of the calcium-binding protein S100P and its involvement in the cytokinin-induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. Biochim.Biophys Acta 9-10-2005;1745(2):156-165. View Abstract
Ishii Y, Sakai S, Honma Y. Cytokinin-induced differentiation of human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells is associated with the formation of nucleotides, but not with incorporation into DNA or RNA. Biochim.Biophys Acta 12-7-2003;1643(1-3):11-24. View Abstract
Kligman D. Cosmeceuticals. Dermatol Clin 2000;18(4):609-615. View Abstract
Olsen A, Siboska GE, Clark B F, et al. N(6)-Furfuryladenine, kinetin, protects against Fenton reaction-mediated oxidative damage to DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 11-19-1999;265(2):499-502. View Abstract
Sheu JR, Hsiao G, Shen MY, et al. Inhibitory mechanisms of kinetin, a plant growth-promoting hormone, in platelet aggregation. Platelets. 2003;14(3):189-196. View Abstract
Slaugenhaupt SA, Mull J, Leyne M, et al. Rescue of a human mRNA splicing defect by the plant cytokinin kinetin. Hum.Mol.Genet. 2-15-2004;13(4):429-436. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017