Jasmine (Jasminum spp.)
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
1-Alpha-terpineol, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, (2E,6E)-farnesol, 2''-epifraxamoside, 2-phenylethyl 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-phenylethyl beta-primeveroside, (2S)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavan-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, (2S)-5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-flavanone 7-O-beta-D-allopyranoside, (2S)-5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-flavanone 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3beta-acetyl-oleanolic acid, 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester, 4-hexanolide, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-nonanolide, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 6'-O-menthiafoloylverbascoside, 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside, 7-ketologanin, 8-epi-kingiside, 10-hydroxyligstroside, 10-hydroxyoleoside dimethyl ester, 10-hydroxy-oleuropein, 11-dimethyl ester, aldehydes, alpha-terpinol, apiosylverbascoside, astragalin, benzaldehyde, benzonic acid, benzyl 6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, benzyl salicylate, beta-linalool, beta-primeveroside, beta-rutinoside, betulin, betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, carbonylic compounds, Catalonian jasmine, catechins, Chinese jasmine green tea, cis-p-coumaric acid, common jasmine, common white jasmine, craigoside A, craigoside B, craigoside C, creosol, daucosterol, demethyl-2''-epifraxamoside, di-linalool, D-linalool, dotriacontanoic acid, dotriacontanol, (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, eugenol, farnesene, farnesol, ferulic acid, flavanone glucosides, gamma-hexenol, geraniol, glucosides, Hadagali Mallige, hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, hesperidin, heteroside, hexenyl benzoate, Indian jasmine, indole, isooleoacteoside, isooleoverbascoside, isoquercitrin, isoverbascoside, Italian jasmine, jasamplexoside A, jasamplexoside B, jasamplexoside C, jasgranoside, jashemsloside E, jaslanceoside A, jaslanceoside B, jasmin, jasmin absolute, jasminanhydride, jasmine absolute, jasmine flexile flower absolute, jasmine flower, jasmine lactone, jasmine tea, jasmine tea infusions, Jasmineae, Jasmini flos, jasminin, jasminium, jasminol, jasminoside, Jasminum, Jasminum abyssinicum, Jasminum amplexicaule, Jasminum amplexicaule Buch.-Ham., Jasminium auriculatum, Jasminum azoricum, Jasminum azoricum var. travancorense, Jasminum flexile flower absolute, Jasminum fruticans L., Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum grandiflorum L., Jasminum grandiflorum Linn., Jasminum hemsleyi, Jasminum lanceolarium, Jasminum mesnya, Jasminum multiflorum, Jasminum nudiflorum, Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl., Jasminum officinale, Jasminum officinale f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob., Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, Jasminum polyanthum, Jasminum polyanthum Franch., Jasminum primulinum, Jasminum primulinum Hemsl., Jasminum pubescens., Jasminum sacbac, Jasminum sambac, Jasminum sambac Ait., Jasminum subtriplinerve Blume, jasmolactone A, jasmolactone B, jasmolactone C, jasmolactone D, jasmonates, jasmone, jasnudifloside A, jasnudifloside B, jasnudifloside C, jasnudifloside D, jasnudifloside E, jasnudifloside F, jasnudifloside G, jasnudifloside H, jasnudifloside I, jasnudifloside J, jasnudifloside K, jasnudifloside L, jaspolyoside, jati, jessamine, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ketones, lactones, ligstroside, linalool, linalyl acetate, liriodendrin, lup-20-en-3beta-ol, mannitol, methyl-4,5-didehydrojasmonate, methyl anthranilate, (-)-methyl jasmonate, methyl linolate, mo li hua, Mysore Mallige, nerol, nerolidol, night blooming jasmine, niu du teng, nonacosane, nonadiene-2,6-al, nonadiene-2,6-ol, nudifloside A, nudifloside B, nudifloside C, nudifloside D, Oleaceae (family), oleacein, oleanolic acid, oleoside-7 and 11-dimethyl ester, oleoside-11-methyl ester, oleuropein, oligomeric secoiridoid glucosides, oxylipin, p-cresol, phenolics, pikake (Hawaiian), poet's jasmine, poet's jessamine, primulinoside, royal jasmine, rutin, sambac (Pilipino), sambacein I, sambacein II, sambacein III, secoiridoid, secoiridoid lactones, Spanish jasmine, sterol, stigmast-5-en-3beta-ol, syringin, trans-cinnamic acid, trans-feruloyl ester of 10-hydroxyoleoside, trans-p-coumaric acid, trans-p-coumaroyl ester of 10-hydroxyoleoside, triterpenes, Udupu Mallige, ursolic acid, verbascoside, yasmin (Persian), yeh-hsi-ming, yellow jasmine.
Select combination products containing jasmine: Asian skin scrubs, Bitter orange & jasmine, Kusmi tea jasmine green tea, Mandarin jasmine hand renewal transformer, White jasmine & mint cologne.
Note: The focus of this monograph is Jasminum species. Other species are also called jasmine and are not the topic of this monograph. These include Cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides), rock jasmine (Androsace septentrionalis), wild jasmine (Clerodendrum inerme), Carolina jasmine or jessamine or American yellow jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. f.), Madagascar jasmine (Stephanotis floribunda Brongn.), day jasmine (Cestrum diurnum L.), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and night jasmine (N. arbor-tristis). Jasmine tobacco and jasmine rice are also not included. Jasmine tea is a green, white, or black tea with jasmine flowers added. Jasmine tea is included in this monograph.
Jasmine is a plant that has sweet, scented flowers. The flowers and oil are used in perfumes, essential oils, and food flavorings.
Early studies show that aromatherapy using jasmine may be relaxing. Some research has found that jasmine may be effective for reducing breast milk. Limited research reported that tea containing jasmine may have less of an effect on reducing the risk of stroke, compared to black or green tea without jasmine. More research is needed.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Jasmine is often used in aromatherapy to promote relaxation. However, early evidence for its effect in increasing alertness is mixed. More research is needed in this area.
Early research suggests that drinking jasmine tea may lack an effect on some cancers. Other studies found that men who drank jasmine tea, green tea, and oolong tea benefited in terms of reduced cancer risk. More research is needed in this field.
In Ayurvedic medicine, jasmine has been used to reduce breast milk. Early evidence suggests that applying jasmine flowers to the breast may decrease milk production. More studies are needed in this area.
Smells and memory are thought to be linked in the brain. Early research suggests that the trigger of the smell of jasmine may result in better memory of the physical environment and a word list. More research is needed in this area.
Jasmine has been used in aromatherapy massage and some evidence suggests that it may improve both menopause symptoms and blood pressure. However, more evidence is needed before conclusions can be made.
Early research reported that drinking tea may reduce the risk of stroke. However, jasmine tea appeared to have less of an effect compared to black or green tea, suggesting that this benefit may not be related to jasmine.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Abnormal menstrual periods, acne, aggressive behavior, air pollution protection, anger, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiseptic, antiviral, aromatherapy, blood vessel dilation, burning eyes, calming, canker sores, childbirth, colds/flu, constipation, corns, cough, depression, diarrhea, dysentery (bloody diarrhea), ear discharge, earache, exhaustion, eye disorders, eye infections, facial paralysis, fragrance, gas, hair growth, headache, hearing loss, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hoarseness, impotence, improving urine flow, infections, inflammation, insect bites, irregular heartbeat, itching, laryngitis, leprosy, liver health, loose teeth, menstrual cramps, menstrual flow stimulant, mood enhancement, muscle spasms, muscle tension, nervous system function, pain, palpitations, paralysis, parasites and worms, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), respiratory inflammation, sedative, sexual arousal, skin conditions, skin irritation, skin toner, sleep disorders, sprains, sterility, stomach disorders, stress, sunstroke, toothache, ulcers, urinary disorders, uterine disorders, wound healing.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
Jasmine has been taken by mouth as a tea (with jasmine flowers that are either boiled or soaked in water) and tincture. A mixture of jasmine essential oils and shea butter has been applied to the skin. Jasmine essential oil has also been used in aromatherapy.
To increase alertness, one milliliter of a 20 percent jasmine oil solution in sweet almond oil has been applied to the stomach for five minutes, then covered with plastic film.
To reduce breast milk, 50 centimeters of stringed jasmine flowers have been applied to each breast daily for five days.
To increase alertness, the following surgical mask preparations have been worn on the face: surgical masks coated with 100 microliters of jasmine absolute ether; surgical masks coated with 20 or 50 microliters of jasmine absolute ether worn for 30 minutes; and surgical masks filled with the smell of jasmine.
To improve memory, a stick of jasmine-scented incense has been used in a room and inhaled.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for jasmine in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid if allergic or sensitive to jasmine, its parts, or members of the Oleaceae family, or if allergic or sensitive to jasmine fragrance, or other fragrances, such as ylang-ylang, lemongrass, narcissus, jasmine, and sandalwood.
There have been reports of skin allergies and itchy rashes on the scalp, neck, face, and hands due to exposure to jasmine flowers or essential oils.
Side Effects and Warnings
Jasmine is considered safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when used in food amounts. Jasmine oil is considered safe when properly diluted in a carrier oil and applied to the skin.
Jasmine may cause reduced concentration and reduced smooth muscle contraction.
Use cautiously and in small amounts in pregnant women, due to a lack of safety data.
Use cautiously in breastfeeding women, as jasmine flowers applied to the breasts have been used to reduce breast milk.
Jasmine may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people with blood pressure disorders or in those taking drugs or herbs and supplements that affect blood pressure.
Use cautiously in people who have irregular heartbeat or other conditions that reduce heart rate. Jasmine may cause changes in blood vessel width and heart rate.
Use cautiously in people who are taking agents that increase urine flow, as jasmine may increase urine flow.
Drowsiness or sedation may occur. Use caution if driving or operating heavy machinery or if taking agents that increase drowsiness.
Avoid if allergic or sensitive to jasmine, its parts, or members of the Oleaceae family, or if allergic or sensitive to jasmine fragrance, or other fragrances, such as ylang-ylang, lemongrass, narcissus, jasmine, and sandalwood. There have been reports of skin allergies and itchy rashes on the scalp, neck, face, and hands due to exposure to jasmine flowers or essential oils.
Avoid taking essential oils, including jasmine essential oils, by mouth. These oils may be poisonous.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Use cautiously and in small amounts in pregnant women, due to a lack of safety data. Traditional Ayurvedic medicine cautions against the use of jasmine during pregnancy.
Use cautiously in breastfeeding women, as jasmine flowers applied to the breasts have been used to reduce breast milk.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Jasmine may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking drugs that affect blood pressure.
Jasmine may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some drugs. Examples include benzodiazepines such as lorazepam (Ativan®) or diazepam (Valium®), barbiturates such as phenobarbital, narcotics such as codeine, some antidepressants, and alcohol. Caution is advised while driving or operating machinery.
Jasmine may also interact with agents that may affect blood cells, agents that may affect blood vessel width, agents that may affect breathing rate, agents that may affect the liver, agents that may affect the nervous system, agents that may increase urine flow, agents that may prevent muscle spasms, agents that may promote breast milk, agents that may regulate heart rate, agents that may relieve anxiety, agents that may treat diarrhea, agents that may treat ulcers and reduce stomach acid, antibiotics, anticancer agents, antifungals, anti-inflammatory agents, antiparasitic agents, antivirals, cholesterol-lowering agents, hormonal agents, pain relievers, and wound-healing agents.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Jasmine may affect blood pressure. Caution is advised in people taking herbs or supplements that affect blood pressure.
Jasmine may increase the amount of drowsiness caused by some herbs or supplements.
Jasmine may also interact with antibacterials, anticancer herbs and supplements, antifungals, anti-inflammatory herbs and supplements, antioxidants, antiparasitic herbs and supplements, antivirals, cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements, herbs and supplements that may affect blood cells, herbs and supplements that may affect blood vessel width, herbs and supplements that may affect breathing rate, herbs and supplements that may affect the liver, herbs and supplements that may affect the nervous system, herbs and supplements that may increase breast milk, herbs and supplements that may increase urine flow, herbs and supplements that may prevent muscle spasms, herbs and supplements that may reduce anxiety, herbs and supplements that may regulate heart rate, herbs and supplements that may treat diarrhea, herbs and supplements that may treat ulcers and reduce stomach acid, hormonal herbs and supplements, pain relievers, soy, and wound-healing herbs and supplements.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Bazin R, Flament F, Colonna A, et al. Clinical study on the effects of a cosmetic product on dermal extracellular matrix components using a high-resolution multiphoton tomograph. Skin Res Technol. 2010;16(3):305-310. View Abstract
Bhattacharya S and Bhattacharyya S. In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers. Methods Mol.Biol. 2010;589:117-126. View Abstract
Braun NA, Kohlenberg B, Sim S, et al. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2009;4(9):1239-1250. View Abstract
Chen YK, Lee CH, Wu IC, et al. Food intake and the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sections of the esophagus in Taiwanese men. Nutrition 2009;25(7-8):753-761. View Abstract
Gao Y, Hu N, Han X, et al. Jasmine tea consumption and upper gastrointestinal cancer in China. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(10):1997-2007. View Abstract
Grabenhorst F, Rolls ET, Margot CA. Hedonically complex odor mixture produces an attentional capture effect in the brain. Neuroimage. 3-15-2011;55(2):832-843. View Abstract
Heuberger E and Ilmberger J. The influence of essential oils on human vigilance. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2010;5(9):1441-1446. View Abstract
Kim DK and Kim JH. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and plastid DNA trnL-F and matK gene sequences. J Plant Res 2011;124(3):339-347. View Abstract
Paibon W, Yimnoi CA, Tembab N, et al. Comparison and evaluation of volatile oils from three different extraction methods for some Thai fragrant flowers. Int.J Cosmet.Sci. 2011;33(2):150-156. View Abstract
Teerarak M, Laosinwattana C, Charoenying P. Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var. grandiflorum (L.) Kob. on bioassay plants. Bioresour.Technol. 2010;101(14):5677-5684. View Abstract
Uter W, Schmidt E, Geier J, et al. Contact allergy to essential oils: current patch test results (2000-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). Contact Dermatitis 2010;63(5):277-283. View Abstract
Vassiliou VA. Ecology and behavior of Pezothrips kellyanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on citrus. J Econ.Entomol. 2010;103(1):47-53. View Abstract
Warshaw EM, Nelsen DD, Sasseville D, et al. Positivity ratio and reaction index: patch-test quality-control metrics applied to the north american contact dermatitis group database. Dermatitis 2010;21(2):91-97. View Abstract
Xiang-Hong L, Shu-Duan S, Hui F. Inhibition by Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl. leaves extract of the corrosion of cold rolled steel in hydrochloric acid solution. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 2010;40(9):1641-1649.
Zu Y, Yu H, Liang L, et al. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells. Molecules. 2010;15(5):3200-3210. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017