Carqueja (Baccharis spp.)
Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
Asteraceae (family), Baccharis genistelloides, Baccharis trimera, Bolivian plant extracts, clerodane diterpene, Compositae (family), echinocystic acid, rutin, quimsa-kuchu (Bolivia), quina-de-condamiana, quinsu, saponins.
Carqueja (Baccharis trimera) is a shrub-like plant native to South America. Carqueja has been popularly used in Brazil to treat liver disease, joint disease, and diabetes. Although carqueja has been used for centuries in Brazil, the first recorded use of carqueja as a medicinal herb was in 1931.
Although not well studied in humans, preliminary results suggest that some extracts of carqueja may help lower high levels of blood sugar. There is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of carqueja to treat any condition in humans.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
No available studies qualify for inclusion in the evidence table.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Analgesic (painkiller), anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, aphrodisiac (increases sexual desire), diabetes, digestive disorders, erectile dysfunction (male impotence), herpes simplex-1 virus (HSV-1), kidney disorders, liver disorders, liver protection, muscle spasm, rheumatism, snakebite, stomach ailments, tonic, weight loss.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
Not enough scientific data available.
Children (under 18 years old)
Not enough scientific data available.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid with known allergy or hypersensitivity to carqueja (Baccharis trimera), its constituents, or members of the Asteraceae/Compositae family, such as dandelion, goldenrod, ragweed, sunflower, and daisies.
Side Effects and Warnings
There is insufficient available evidence on side effects.
Carqueja may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist; medication adjustments may be necessary.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Carqueja is not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding due to lack of sufficient data.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Carqueja may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also affect blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Carqueja may also interact with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidants, antispasmodic agents, antivenom, antiviral agents, and painkillers.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Carqueja may affect blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.
Carqueja may also interact with antibacterials, anti-inflammatory herbs, antioxidants, antispasmodics, antivenom, antivirals, and painkillers.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Abad MJ, Bermejo P, Gonzales E, et al. Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts. Gen Pharmacol 1999;32(4):499-503.View Abstract
Betoni JE, Mantovani RP, Barbosa LN, et al. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101(4):387-390.View Abstract
Dickel ML, Rates SM, Ritter MR. Plants popularly used for loosing [sic] weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109(1):60-71.View Abstract
Gené RM, Cartaña C, Adzet T, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Baccharis trimera: identification of its active constituents. Planta Med 1996;62(3):232-235.View Abstract
Hnatyszyn O, Moscatelli V, Garcia J, et al. Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig. Phytomedicine 2003;10(8):669-674.View Abstract
Januário AH, Santos SL, Marcussi S, et al. Neo-clerodane diterpenoid, a new metalloprotease snake venom inhibitor from Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae): anti-proteolytic and anti-hemorrhagic properties. Chem Biol Interact 2004;150(3):243-251.View Abstract
Mendes FR, Tabach R, Carlini EA. Evaluation of Baccharis trimera and Davilla rugosa in tests for adaptogen activity. Phytother Res 2007;21(6):517-522.View Abstract
Oliveira AC, Endringer DC, Amorim LA, et al. Effect of the extracts and fractions of Baccharis trimera and Syzygium cumini on glycaemia of diabetic and non-diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;102(3):465-469.View Abstract
Pádua Bda C, Silva LD, Rossoni Júnior JV, et al. Antioxidant properties of Baccharis trimera in the neutrophils of Fisher rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;129(3):381-6.View Abstract
Paul EL, Lunardelli A, Caberlon E, et al. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Baccharis trimera aqueous extract on induced pleurisy in rats and lymphoproliferation in vitro. Inflammation 2009;32(6):419-25.View Abstract
Rodrigues CR, Dias JH, de Mello RN, et al. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of Baccharis trimera in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;125(1):97-101.View Abstract
Simões-Pires CA, Queiroz EF, Henriques AT, et al. Isolation and on-line identification of antioxidant compounds from three Baccharis species by HPLC-UV-MS/MS with post-column derivatisation. Phytochem Anal 2005;16(5):307-314.View Abstract
Soicke H, Leng-Peschlow E. Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties. Planta Med 1987;53(1):37-39. View Abstract
Torres LM, Gamberini MT, Roque NF et al. Diterpene from Baccharis trimera with a relaxant effect on rat vascular smooth muscle. Phytochemistry 2000;55(6):617-619. View Abstract
Xavier AA, Peckolt OL, Canali J. [Effect of an extract of Baccharis genistelloides Person on the glucose level of the blood]. C.R.Seances Soc.Biol Fil 1967;161(4):972-974. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017