Natural Standard Bottom Line Monograph, Copyright © 2013 (www.naturalstandard.com). Commercial distribution prohibited. This monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. You should consult with a qualified healthcare provider before making decisions about therapies and/or health conditions.
While some complementary and alternative techniques have been studied scientifically, high-quality data regarding safety, effectiveness, and mechanism of action are limited or controversial for most therapies. Whenever possible, it is recommended that practitioners be licensed by a recognized professional organization that adheres to clearly published standards. In addition, before starting a new technique or engaging a practitioner, it is recommended that patients speak with their primary healthcare provider(s). Potential benefits, risks (including financial costs), and alternatives should be carefully considered. The below monograph is designed to provide historical background and an overview of clinically-oriented research, and neither advocates for or against the use of a particular therapy.
AAI, alphaAI-1, alphaAI-2, arcelin-5, bean amylase inhibitors, Calorex, Fabaceae (family), Phase 2®, Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer®, phaseolamin, Phaseolus vulgaris extract, starch blockers, Starchex, wheat amylase inhibitor, wheat proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors (alpha-AIs), white kidney bean extract.
Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates or starches in the body. Because of their purported ability to prevent starch breakdown and absorption, alpha amylase inhibitors have been used for weight loss. At this time, commercially available amylase inhibitors are extracted from wheat or white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
In humans, amylase inhibitors have been shown to decrease intestinal absorption of carbohydrates by reducing intestinal amylase activity. However, there are few high-quality human studies that support the use of amylase inhibitors for any indication.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Amylase inhibitors have been shown to decrease levels of blood glucose. Large, well-designed studies are needed before a firm recommendation can be made.
Preliminary studies have shown that taking an amylase inhibitor with meals may lead to weight loss. However, well-designed clinical studies are needed in this area.
*Key to grades:A: Strong scientific evidence for this use; B: Good scientific evidence for this use; C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use; D: Fair scientific evidence against this use (it may not work); F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likely does not work).
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious and should be evaluated by a qualified health care professional.
Antibacterial, antifungal, insecticide.
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.
Adults (18 years and older)
Various doses of amylase inhibitors have been studied but no dose has been proven effective. Typically, 1,500-6,000 milligrams amylase inhibitors has been used before meals.
For diabetes, 4-6 grams has been used for up to seven days. For weight loss, a dose of 3,000 amylase inhibitor units from Phase 2® (white kidney bean derived amylase inhibitor) has been used daily for 30 days. A dose of 1,500 milligrams Phase 2® has been used twice daily for eight weeks without effect.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for amylase inhibitors in children.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.
Avoid in individuals with known allergy or sensitivity to amylase inhibitors or sources of amylase inhibitors, such as wheat or legumes.
Side Effects and Warnings
Amylase inhibitors may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional and medication adjustments may be necessary.
Amylase inhibitors should be used with caution in individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, kidney disorders, or liver problems. When used in combination with other weight loss agents, amylase inhibitors may have additive effects.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Amylase inhibitors are not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.
Interactions with Drugs
Amylase inhibitors may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or injection should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare provider. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
When taken with other weight loss agents, amylase inhibitors may have additive effects.
Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements
Amylase inhibitors may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need to be adjusted.
When taken with other weight loss agents, including Garcinia cambogia, inulin, and rosmarinic acid, amylase inhibitors may have additive effects. Amylase inhibitors may also interact with guar.
This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).
Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to www.naturalstandard.com. Selected references are listed below.
Bays HE. Current and investigational antiobesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets. Obes.Res. 2004;12(8):1197-1211. View Abstract
Bo-Linn GW, Santa Ana CA, Morawski SG, et al. Starch blockers--their effect on calorie absorption from a high-starch meal. N.Engl.J Med. 12-2-1982;307(23):1413-1416. View Abstract
Boivin M, Flourie B, Rizza RA, et al. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of amylase inhibition in diabetics. Gastroenterology 1988;94(2):387-394. View Abstract
Boivin M, Zinsmeister AR, Go VL, et al. Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate metabolism after a mixed meal in healthy humans. Mayo Clin.Proc. 1987;62(4):249-255. View Abstract
Brugge WR, Rosenfeld MS. Impairment of starch absorption by a potent amylase inhibitor. Am.J Gastroenterol. 1987;82(8):718-722. View Abstract
Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, et al. A Dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int.J Med.Sci. 2007;4(1):45-52. View Abstract
Chokshi D. Subchronic oral toxicity of a standardized white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) extract in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45(1):32-40. View Abstract
Chokshi D. Toxicity studies of Blockal, a dietary supplement containing Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer (Phase 2), a standardized extract of the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Int.J Toxicol. 2006;25(5):361-371. View Abstract
Choudhury A, Maeda K, Murayama R, et al. Character of a wheat amylase inhibitor preparation and effects on fasting human pancreaticobiliary secretions and hormones. Gastroenterology 1996;111(5):1313-1320. View Abstract
Lankisch M, Layer P, Rizza RA, et al. Acute postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of wheat amylase inhibitor (WAI) in normal, obese, and diabetic humans. Pancreas 1998;17(2):176-181. View Abstract
Layer P, Zinsmeister AR, DiMagno EP. Effects of decreasing intraluminal amylase activity on starch digestion and postprandial gastrointestinal function in humans. Gastroenterology 1986;91(1):41-48. View Abstract
Liener IE, Donatucci DA, Tarcza JC. Starch blockers: a potential source of trypsin inhibitors and lectins. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1984;39(2):196-200. View Abstract
Rekha MR, Padmaja G. Alpha-amylase inhibitor changes during processing of sweet potato and taro tubers. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2002;57(3-4):285-294. View Abstract
Thom E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new weight-reducing agent of natural origin. J Int.Med.Res. 2000;28(5):229-233. View Abstract
Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern.Med.Rev. 2004;9(1):63-69. View Abstract
Copyright © 2013 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.
March 22, 2017