Staph Infection (non-MRSA)
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are often called “staph.” They are common germs that can cause a variety of problems. These range from mild skin infections to severe infections of your skin, deep tissues, lungs, bones, and blood. Most healthy adults normally carry staph on their nose and skin. Typically, they do not cause disease. But if your skin is broken or opened, staph can enter your body and cause infection. Staph infections often get better on their own or are easily treated with antibiotics. However, it is becoming more common to see bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, or hard to kill with them. This sheet tells you more about staph infections and what you can do to avoid them.
How does staph spread?
Staph spreads through direct contact with an infected person through skin-to-skin contact. It also spreads through contact with contaminated objects, such as shared towels or athletic equipment.
What are the risk factors for a staph infection?
Anyone can get a staph infection. Certain risk factors make it more likely, including:
Living or having close contact with someone who has staph
Having an open wound or sore
Playing contact sports or sharing towels or athletic equipment
A current or recent stay in a hospital or long-term care facility
A recent operation or wound treatment
Having a feeding tube or catheter (a tube placed in your body)
Receiving kidney dialysis
Having a weak immune system or serious illness
Injecting illegal drugs
What conditions can be caused by a staph infection?
Staph infections usually start in your skin. They sometimes appear as small red bumps that look like pimples or spider bites. These sores can turn into abscesses (pus-filled areas of infection). Staph infections can also spread deeper into your body, causing one or more of the following:
Infections in bones (osteomyelitis), muscles, and other tissues
Pneumonia (a serious lung infection)
Infection in a wound from an operation
Bacteremia (infection in the bloodstream)
Endocarditis (infection of the lining of your heart and your heart valves)
Toxic shock syndrome (an illness caused by the toxins staph produces)
Scalded skin syndrome (a staph skin infection causing blisters and raw skin)
How is a staph infection diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider can often diagnose staph infection based on its appearance. With a more serious infection, testing may be done. Often, a sample of blood or urine is taken. A sample of drainage from a wound, sputum (mucus from the respiratory system), or infected tissue can also be used. The sample is sent to a lab and tested for staph.
How is a staph infection treated?
A minor skin infection is typically treated with warm soaks and basic wound care, including applying a bandage. If more serious, an antibiotic may be prescribed, either as a pill or an ointment. For an even more severe infection your provider may prescribe a more powerful antibiotic given intravenously. If you have a pocket of pus (abscess), your provider may drain it.
How can I prevent staph infections?
To reduce the spread of staph infections, keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered until they heal. Avoid contact with the wounds or bandages of others. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, razors, clothing, and athletic equipment. And be sure to keep your hands clean. Your best option is washing your hands with warm water and soap. If that’s not possible, or if your hands aren’t visibly dirty, use a hand gel that contains at least 60% alcohol.
Tips for good handwashing:
Use warm water and plenty of soap. Work up a good lather.
Clean your whole hand, under your nails, between your fingers, and up your wrists.
Wash for at least 15 to 30 seconds. Don’t just wipe. Scrub well.
Rinse, letting the water run down your fingers, not up your wrists.
Dry your hands well. Use a paper towel to turn off the faucet and open the door.
Using alcohol-based hand gels:
Use enough gel to get your hands completely wet.
Rub your hands together briskly. Be sure to clean the backs of your hands, the palms, between your fingers, and up your wrists.
Rub until the gel is gone and your hands are completely dry.
Taking antibiotics correctly
You may have heard of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). This is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant, or hard-to-kill, with many antibiotics that used to be effective against it. This means the bacteria can't be treated with many antibiotics (such as methicillin) that work on other types of staph. But, many alternative effective antibiotics remain available. Resistant bacteria develop when antibiotics are not prescribed or taken properly. This includes when they are taken longer than necessary, not long enough, or when they’re not needed. This is why your healthcare provider may not want to prescribe antibiotics unless he or she is certain they are needed. It’s also why any time you are prescribed antibiotics, you must take them exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. This means not skipping doses, and taking the medicine until it’s finished, even if you’re feeling better.
March 20, 2017
Clinical approach to Stayphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults, Up To Date
Lentnek, Arnold, MD,Sather, Rita, RN