Possible Causes of Dizziness or Fainting
Dizziness and fainting can have many causes. Below are some examples of possible causes your healthcare provider will look to rule out.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
BPPV results when calcium crystals inside the inner ear shift into the wrong position. BPPV causes episodes of vertigo (a spinning sensation). Episodes most often happen when the head is moved in a certain way. This is more common in people 65 and older.
Infection or inflammation
The semicircular canals of the ear may become infected or inflamed. In this case, they can send the wrong balance signals. This can cause vertigo.
Meniere disease happens when there is too much fluid in the semicircular canals. This can cause vertigo. It also can cause hearing problems and buzzing or ringing in the ears (called tinnitus). You may also have a feeling of pressure or fullness in the ear.
Syncope is fainting that happens when the brain doesn’t get enough oxygen-rich blood. It can be caused by low heart rate or low blood pressure. This is called vasovagal syncope. It can also be caused by sitting or standing up too quickly. This is called orthostatic hypotension. Syncope may also be due to a heart valve problem, an abnormal heart rhythm, or other heart problems. Dizziness can also happen from stroke, hemorrhage in the brain, or other problems in the brain. Your healthcare provider may do certain tests to rule out these conditions.
Other causes include:
Medicines. Certain medicines can cause dizziness and even fainting. In some cases, stopping a medicine too quickly can lead to withdrawal symptoms, including dizziness and fainting.
Anxiety. Being anxious can lead to breathing changes, such as hyperventilation. These can lead to dizziness and fainting.
Additional causes for dizziness and fainting also exist. Talk to your healthcare provider for more information.
October 14, 2017
Pathogenesis and Etiology of Syncope. UpToDate, Pathophysiology, etiology, and differential diagnosis of vertigo. UpToDate
Fetterman, Anne, RN, BSN,Image reviewed by StayWell art team.,Jasmin, Luc, MD