Your esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. It plays an important role in digestion. Sometimes a person can tear the tissue of the lower esophagus, and it can start to bleed. This is called a Mallory-Weiss tear.
Causes and symptoms of a Mallory-Weiss tear
The most common cause of a tear is violent coughing or vomiting. Increased pressure in your belly (abdomen) from a hiatal hernia or childbirth can also lead to a tear. Seizures may cause a tear, as can alcoholism leading to severe vomiting. Increasing age also increases the risk of a Mallory-Weiss tear.
A tear can cause symptoms such as:
Vomit that is bright red or looks like coffee grounds
Stools that are black or sticky like tar
Weakness, dizziness, faintness, or shortness of breath
If the bleeding is not treated, it can continue for a long time. This can cause anemia, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Diagnosing and treating a Mallory-Weiss tear
If you have symptoms, your healthcare provider may test your stool to look for blood. You may also have an endoscopy. This is a procedure to look at your esophagus. It uses a tool called an endoscope. This is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light at the end. After giving you some light sedation, the scope is put through your mouth and down into your esophagus. This lets your healthcare provider look at the inside of your esophagus.
In most cases, a Mallory-Weiss tear will stop bleeding and heal on its own. But some people will need treatment. If needed, your healthcare provider will treat your tear through the endoscope. You may have an injection to make the bleeding stop. Or, you may be given a heat treatment to close the wound. In some cases, a tiny clip may be used to close the tear. Depending on how much blood is lost, you may need a blood transfusion.
In rare cases, a Mallory-Weiss tear can lead to severe internal bleeding. This is a medical emergency. Call 911 if you have:
A rapid, weak pulse
Significant vomiting of blood
A blue tint to your lips or fingernails
Very little urine
Pale skin that’s cool and moist to the touch
September 04, 2017
Mallory-Weiss Syndrome, Up To Date, Repurposed from 134-201
Hanrahan, John, MD,Image reviewed by StayWell medical illustration team.,Sather, Rita, RN