Ectropion is an eyelid that sags or turns outward. It usually affects one or both lower eyelids. Ectropion leaves the eye too exposed. The eye can become dry, irritated, and even infected. This can lead to serious problems. In some cases it can lead to loss of eyesight.
What causes ectropion?
Congenital ectropion is present from birth. There is not enough skin in the area under the eye. This may happen because of problems with some genes. This most often occurs along with health problems such as:
Acquired ectropion happens later in life. There are 4 different types:
Involutional ectropion. This is the most common type of ectropion. It often results from aging. Over time the collagen and elastic fibers in the eyelid can get weak. This causes the eyelid tissue to become very loose. Gravity can then cause the eyelid to fall open. It is most common in older adults. The other types of ectropion are rare.
Cicatricial ectropion. This is a rare type of ectropion. It’s caused when the lower lid contracts abnormally. This is often from scarring. It causes the lid to open outward. This may happen because of an eye infection or eye injury, or problems after eye surgery. An infection called trachoma is a main cause of this kind of ectropion. The infection is caused by bacteria.
Paralytic ectropion. This is also a rare type of ectropion. This results from a problem with the facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve). This nerve sends signals to the muscle right under the eye. Problems with the nerve can cause other problems in facial movement. Cranial nerve paralysis may occur as a result of a stroke.
Mechanical ectropion. This is another rare type. This happens when a tumor or other mass in the eyelid pulls it down.
Symptoms of ectropion
Symptoms are caused by the front part of the eye (cornea) and lining of the eye (conjunctiva) being exposed. They can include:
Too much tearing
Itching, burning, or crusting, from chronic conjunctivitis
Blurry eyesight, sensitivity to light, and eye pain, from an infection or ulcer of the cornea
Inability to fully close the eyelids, especially with paralytic ectropion
Your eye doctor will ask about your past health. He or she will give you an eye exam. Tests are not needed to diagnose ectropion.
Treatment for ectropion
You may first use treatments such as:
Lubricating eye drops
Steroid ointment in the eyes
Antibiotics to treat an eye infection
Taping the eyelid in to normal position, most often at night
Most people with ectropion will need surgery. The type of surgery used depends on the cause of the ectropion. For example, you may need extra skin removed. Or you may need a donor skin graft to add more skin under your eye. You may need a tumor removed from your eyelid. In most cases, surgery fixes ectropion.
Possible complications of ectropion
Ectropion can cause infection of the cornea that leads to a corneal ulcer. This may cause scarring of the cornea and loss of eyesight.
When to call your healthcare provider
Call your health care provider right away if you have any of these:
Eye redness that gets worse
Sensitivity to light that gets worse
Fluid coming from your eye
March 21, 2017
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MMI board-certified, academically affiliated clinician,Turley, Ray, BSN, MSN