Common Spine and Disk Problems
The most common serious back problems happen when disks tear, bulge, or rupture. In such cases, an injured disk can no longer cushion the vertebrae and absorb shock. As a result, the rest of your spine may also weaken. This can lead to pain, stiffness, and other symptoms.
Torn annulus. A sudden movement may cause a tiny tear in an annulus. Nearby ligaments may stretch.
Contained herniated disk. As a disk wears out, the nucleus may bulge into the annulus and press on nerves.
Extruded herniated disk. When a disk ruptures, its nucleus can squeeze out and irritate a nerve.
Arthritis. As disks wear out over time, bone spurs form. These growths can irritate nerves and inflame facets.
Instability. As a disk stretches, the vertebrae slip back and forth. This can put pressure on the annulus.
Spondylolisthesis. Listhesis is a condition in which one vertebra has moved forward or backward, in relation to the one above or below it. This causes a crack (stress fracture) in the areas that link the vertebrae together. This may put pressure on the annulus, stretch the disk, and irritate nerves.
November 03, 2017
Back Pain in Children and Adolescents: Overview of Causes. UpToDate
Berry, Judith, PhD, APRN,Joseph, Thomas N., MD