What are absence seizures?
An absence seizure causes you to blank out or stare into space for a few seconds. They can also be called petit mal seizures. Absence seizures are most common in children and typically don’t cause any long-term problems. These types of seizures are often set off by a period of hyperventilation.
Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14. A child may have 10, 50, or even 100 absence seizures in a given day and they may go unnoticed. Most children who have typical absence seizures are otherwise normal. However, absence seizures can get in the way of learning and affect concentration at school. This is why prompt treatment is important.
Absence seizures are a type of epilepsy, a condition that causes seizures. Seizures are caused by abnormal brain activity. These mixed messages confuse your brain and cause a seizure.
Not everyone who has a seizure has epilepsy. Usually, a diagnosis of epilepsy can be made after two or more seizures.
Absence seizures often occur along with other types of seizures that cause muscle jerking, twitching, and shaking. Absence seizures may be confused with other types of seizures. Doctors will pay close attention to your symptoms in order to make the right diagnosis. This is very important for effective and safe treatment of your seizures.
It’s uncommon for absence seizures to continue into adulthood, but it’s possible to have an absence seizure at any age.
What causes absence seizures?
Like other kinds of seizures, absence seizures are caused by abnormal activity in a person’s brain. Doctors often don’t know why this happens. Most absence seizures are less than 15 seconds long. It’s rare for an absence seizure to last longer than 15 minutes. They can happen suddenly without any warning signs.
What are the symptoms of absence seizures?
The easiest way to spot an absence seizure is to look for a blank stare that lasts for a few seconds. People in the midst of having an absence seizure don’t speak, listen, or appear to understand. An absence seizure doesn’t typically cause you to fall down. You could be in the middle of making dinner, walking across the room, or typing an e-mail when you have the seizure. Then suddenly you snap out of it and continue as you were before the seizure.
These are other possible symptoms of an absence seizure:
- Being very still
- Smacking the lips or making a chewing motion with the mouth
- Fluttering the eyelids
- Stopping activity (suddenly not talking or moving)
- Suddenly returning to activity when the seizure ends
If you experience jerking motions, it may be a sign of another type of seizure taking place along with the absence seizure.
How are absence seizures diagnosed?
You may have absence seizures repeatedly for years before heading to the doctor for a diagnosis. You may have “staring spells” without thinking of them as a medical problem or a seizure.
An EEG is a test most often used to diagnose absence seizures. This test records the brain’s electrical activity and spots any abnormalities that could indicate an absence seizure.
These tests also can help to diagnose absence seizures or rule out other conditions:
- Blood tests
- Tests of the kidneys and liver
- CT or MRI scans
- Spinal tap to test the cerebrospinal fluid
How are absence seizures treated?
Absence seizures can affect your ability to perform at work or school, so it’s a good idea to see your healthcare provider about treatment.
Absence seizures can be treated with a number of different antiseizure medicines. The type of medicine that your healthcare provider recommends you take will also depend on what other seizure disorder you may have. If you have more than one type of seizure disorder, you may need to take multiple medicines.
Can absence seizures be prevented?
Taking your medicines exactly as your doctor prescribed is one of the best ways to manage absence seizures. But you can also make some changes in your life to help prevent absence seizures from happening. These include:
- Get plenty of sleep each night.
- Find ways to manage your stress.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Exercise regularly.
Living with absence seizures
Most people with epilepsy live full and active lives with medicine and other lifestyle changes. But it can be challenging at times to manage large and small life events when you have epilepsy. Depending on your age and the severity and type of epilepsy, you may need support with the following:
- Behavioral and emotional issues. It is important to get enough sleep and manage stress when you have epilepsy. Stress and lack of sleep can trigger seizures. If you have trouble sleeping, talk with your healthcare provider about how to make sure you get enough sleep. Learn coping techniques that will help you manage stress and anxiety.
- Employment. With proper treatment, people with epilepsy can do just about any job safely and effectively. But, certain jobs in which there is a high risk to public safety may not be an option. Epilepsy is covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act. This law prohibits discrimination against people with epilepsy and other disabilities.
- Coping with discrimination and stigma. Children and adults with epilepsy may face discrimination and struggle to overcome the stigma associated with this neurological condition. Help educate family, friends, co-workers, and classmates on your condition. Let them know what to expect and how to help during a seizure.
- Education. Children with epilepsy may be entitled to special services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Working closely with the child’s teacher and school nurse will help improve management of epilepsy at school. It’s important for parents of children with epilepsy to balance safety and fun. Allow your child to have some age-appropriate independence and participate in sports and other activities at school, when possible.
- Driving. Each state has different driving laws for people with epilepsy. Licensing may depend on how severe seizures are and how well they are controlled. Consider public transportation where it is available. If you continue to have absence seizures, it may not be safe for you to drive.
- Support and online resources. You may feel alone in dealing with day-to-day life with epilepsy, but be assured that many people have epilepsy. You can find local support groups through your healthcare provider or local hospital. Many online resources give tools and tips for managing this condition. Online social media support groups bring together people from all over the world who are managing their epilepsy. These groups provide support and encouragement.
If you have trouble managing your absence seizures, you may want to work more closely with your healthcare provider to find a better way to treat them.
Key points about absence seizures
- Absence seizures are seizures that generally last just a few seconds, and are characterized by a blank or “absent” stare.
- Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14, but it’s possible to have an absence seizure at any age.
- Absence seizures are easy to miss, but tests and an evaluation of symptoms can diagnose them.
- Healthcare providers can usually help find the right mix of medications and lifestyle changes to manage absence seizures.
- Without treatment, school performance, work, and relationships can suffer.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your healthcare provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your healthcare provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your healthcare provider if you have questions.
November 11, 2017
Childhood absence epilepsy. UpToDate.
Bass, Pat F. III, MD, MPH,Shelat, Amit, MD